Humanistic and Radical Approaches to Andragogy

 

 

For my first choice, I shall refer to humanistic education and why I feel that it is most relevant to me just now in my present circumstances. Learning through a humanistic approach to education relies on being self-directed. As with many of us doing this course and was mentioned before I work a full-time job to pay for the course. By being given the opportunity to be self-directed allows someone working to study at a pace that is suitable to them at the times when they are available. Through this approach of self-directed learning, it will enable the learner to be tested on the most valuable form of evaluation: self-evaluation. This is notably important when in comes to andragogy regarding development studies. Many adult learners wish to deepen their understanding of development as they already have extensive experience through their careers and lifestyles, a humanistic approach allows the learner to incorporate their own experiences into their learning As Saul McLeod wrote in 2007:” “Humanistic, humanism, and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each.”(Saul McLeod 2007).A Humanistic approach does not separate from the cognitive and affective domains, understanding that both feeling and knowledge are important as opposed to objectively memorized facts.(Cortland 2012).A humanistic approach to education allows adult learners to learn in a non-threatening and safe environment where we can use our own skills and experiences to help us grow and develop in a whole way.

 

 

Radical education is an approach which views education as a means to bring about fundamental social, cultural, political, and economic change.(Daniel Schugurensky,2002).Radical education focuses on promoting social, political and economic reform through education.(Shana Appelhanz, 2014).This is especially important to us in development studies because we already have interests in this area and can hone our already growing knowledge base. Radical education serves to provide equality to all who study as It relates to” access to wealth, education, healthcare, creative work, and to promoting collective and corporative forms of decision making and labor.”(Bookfield and Holst,2011).Origins of  Radical education can be traced back to Marxist theory and anarchist traditions. Allowing the teachers to rather be supporters of students and being on equal terms allows beneficial symbiotic relations to foster. Brazilian educator and philosopher Paulo Freire was an essential contributor to the philosophy, fundamentally he believed that collective action and continuing the struggle for the oppressed was important to liberate themselves from all forms of domination(Reflect Action,2009).This then, in turn, allows learners and educators to challenge the status quo.

 

I believe that both humanistic and radical approaches to education have their merits when it comes to andragogy. The humanist approach allows adult learners to study in a way in which they can learn in a self-directed approach in which they can incorporate all of their own experiences and knowledge. Radical education allows learners to study as co-creators of knowledge. As Freire noted traditional education methods instead treat individuals as empty vessels to be filled with knowledge. This can be seen in his “banking model of education.” There are critiques of course of both of these approaches such as how humanistic education may lead to individualization If all the students in class regularly do the same thing at the same time, their individual needs are not being met and this would be bad(Kenneth R. Conklin,1984). Critics of the radical approach to education argue that the philosophy is too rigid and with the too widely varying definitions is too hard to put into practice.  Regarding how these methods relate to myself and learning on this course, I believe these to be two most reliable due to my present circumstances. Development studies are often undertaken by individuals with a wealth of knowledge in the field already. The knowledge that they can draw upon to apply to a variety of situations. This is especially true when it comes to adult learners who may be working long hours in the area of development.

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Resiliance

Resilience is a word that has become prominent in the development studies community over the last few years. Resilience started to appear after the 2008 financial crisis as people were looking for new techniques and terminology for tackling poverty.(Misha Hussain 2016).Vulnerability is also a term that has become popular over the last decade. It is important to note that both these terms are often used when referring to positive elements of poverty reduction but do however mean two entirely different things. Vulnerability is not merely about poverty, but extensive research over the last 30 years has revealed that it is generally the poor who tend to suffer from disasters(DFID 2004). Resilience, however, is deployed in diverse fields including psychology, structural engineering, and corporations. Resilience is discussed in a number of areas including the social sciences, ecological fields amongst others. Resilience has been the focus for many development projects and could be said to be replacing sustainability as the eventual goal of development practice(IDS,2012) Resilience could be said to be when actors can withstand changes and adjustments and still function normally. Theoretical discussions on the varying definitions of resilience have been generated over the years. Most of these definitions are merely used as an indication of the job to be done but are however unable to capture all possible worries about peoples vulnerability. For example, many make reference only to how much loss people (or systems) suffer, but do not address the essential question of how far they fall below any threshold of acceptable coping; a little distinction is made between how much people lose and how quickly they recover. (Simon Levine, HPD Policy Brief 2014)This concept of actors using their own definition of resilience has led to the idea that the idea of resilience may merely be another way to mask some of the underlying causes of poverty and environmental destruction.

 

 

 

Resilience should be thought of somewhat as a conceptual tool in which other, other disciplines can come together to tackle difficulties in a holistic manner. In some ways, it can be seen that many of the issues which cause crises are inevitable. The task, therefore, being to allow people to cope when to eventually go wrong. This helps to ensure that the most vulnerable may be protected, rather than pumping resource’s into developing countries, it allows aid to be distributed to who need it most. (Simon Levine, HPD Policy Brief 2014).An example of this can be seen in a case study of the food resilience programmes run by Practical Action as part of the Zurich Alliance. Practical Action helped to set up a farming school for at-risk communities in Nepal, living on the floodplains of the Karnali river.  The villagers were always at risk from flash floods, which endangered their livestock, food, and homes. This caused many to take on expensive loans to allow them to recover. The farming schools were set up which allowed the villagers to learn new sustainable farming techniques. This allowed farmers to cultivate outside the varying seasons. Practical Action also helped to advise villagers how to protect their assets during the floods. The resilience of this community then allowed them to invest in other areas, such as healthcare and education for their children.(Adele Murphy, 2017).

 

 

The main trouble with resilience is the difficulty in defining what resilience programming actually looks like. There is also the risk that by making an entire community very resilient there still may be those who will suffer. This can be seen when a community may become very resilient to say natural disasters and climate change adaption but still very poor.  This is what can lead to manipulation when used as a tool for poverty alleviation. Much of this may be when the term is misused, as there are many different conceptualizations of resilience it is hard to define what a resilient community may look like. Resilience cannot be used until it is fully understood rather, resilience must be used as a process as part of other development practices. (IDS,2012)

 

 

Resilience is essential now in any form of development planning, especially regarding poverty reduction. Resilience cannot, however, be used instead of other methods to challenge poverty and climate change. Alternatively, it must be used as a continuing process and put into the planning of other methods. It is essential to building resilient communities but also not to forget the most vulnerable, and at-risk individuals, focus must not be on not only how far people fall but also how fast they can recover. In this sense when resilience is applied it must be holistically and with a precise definition. For instance, do we necessarily need to adopt a resilience framework to analyze the potential role of social protection programmes to strengthen the adaptive capacity of the recipients? (Godfrey Wood 2011)

 

 

 

Brief Economic History of Thailand

Thailand can be broken into four main regions. The North with its mountainous and fertile lands viable for growing rice and teak. Central Thailand home to Bangkok “City of Angels” and the fertile Chao Phraya basin. The North East (Essan), the driest, least productive and least modern place in Thailand. The South, with its moist atmosphere where many produce rubber, tropical crops, and tin. Thailand the “Land of the free” was a country living in the ideal of attaining a virtuous life by shaping their character to Buddhist principles where goodness was prized over personal wealth. Thailand has now changed from an absolute monarchy rule, to one of self-sustained Democracy. Buddhism has supplied cognitive and evaluative elements that have been integrated into every aspect of Thai identity, even If the individual is Thai or part of a Thai ethnic minority. Thailand is an extremely hierarchal society, If you are born into a ‘High-so’  family – as they are typically referred to here – your sense of identity is of course very different than if you are born into a ‘Low-so’ family. Individuals who are born into ‘High-so’ families often have a feeling of superiority over those that are born into ‘Low-so’ families.

 

 

 

Wetland agriculture has always played a significant role in Thailand’s economy. Known previously as Siam, Thailand opened to foreign contact in the pre-industrial era. Previously, Thailand was a feudal society mostly run by noble families. The Thai economy changed from one of subsidence to cash during the nineteenth century by the opening of the commercial rice market, during this time the power of the noble families was weakened as more rights were given to farmers by the King. (Jeffrey Hayes, 2008). Thailand slowly became one of the major trade hubs in Asia, mostly trading with Chinese merchants, many of whom migrated and attained high positions within the country. Later, deals with Europe increased, with treaties being created to guarantee the rights and privileges of European traders. Later amendments were made extending these opportunities to Americans also. Thailand’s economy eventually grew until it began to work on a global scale. During the time of the Vietnam war and the late 1980’s and early 1990’s Thailand began to grow at a level where the economy started to rival that of other developed nations such as Taiwan and South Korea. Growing steadily at eight percent per year between 1985 and 1995 and peaking at 13 percent in 1988. This growth continued until the great depression and then later the Asian financial crisis which originated in Thailand in 1997 because of the financial collapse of the Thai Baht. The crisis was the worst economic crisis ever to hit Thailand and was dubbed the Tom Yum Goong crisis (Spicy Shrimp Soup) due to the immense heat and stress that people felt at that time. There was action taken by many actors at the time, including the Thai monarchy. Bhumibol Adulyadej was the King at this time and had toured the country for years, especially in rural and impoverished regions such as Essan; considered to be the most impoverished region of the nation. King Bhumibol had significantly lectured on the benefits of following a sufficiency based economy. The focus being on an economy that would allow the Thai people to support themselves (UNDP report 2007). The sufficiency economy philosophy is made up of three main components these being: wisdom, moderation, and prudence. Sufficiency economy has much in common with Buddhist economics, a spiritual belief that gross national happiness is more important than gross domestic product. As Zsolnai Laszlo stated, Buddhist economics can be summed up as when “the marginal productivity of labor utilized in producing consumption goods is equal to the marginal effectiveness of the meditation involved in economizing on consumption without bringing about any change in satisfaction” (Zsolnai, Laszlo, 2011). The king among other members of the monarchy carried out a number of royal projects hoping to alleviate some of the effects of the Tom Yum Goong crisis.

 

 

Thailand’s focus for the next few years was recovery. After facing a number of natural disasters and political turmoil, Thailand was on its way to recovery. This was what led to the rise of Thaksin Shinawatra and his policy which was later named ‘Thaksinomics’ which had a focus on promoting greater infrastructure and development in rural Thailand. Thaksin was voted into office in 2001 and although the first year saw as little as 2.2 percent GDP growth, the following years saw positive growth from 2002-2004 with rates of 5.3, 7.1 and 6.3 (Aidan Jones, 2014). This again led to his party having another huge victory in 2005 where he was re-elected. There was much opposition to Thaksinomics amid reports of corruption, which later led to the military coup in 2006 while Thaksin was giving a speech at the United Nations general assembly in New York. This brought the GDP growth rate back down to 4.4 percent in 2006. Then in 2008, there was even more political turmoil between opposing groups, those who supported Thaksin and those who supported the leader of the military coup. The following years were filled with political and financial turmoil, never again having the steady growth of Thaksin Shinawatra’s Thaksonomics. In 2011 Thaksin’s sister, Yingluck Shinawatra was elected and was Prime Minister for a further three years until she was ousted in May 2014.The rice scheme was in many ways what led to her election in 2011 and subsequent removal in 2014. Yingluck promised to buy rice from Thai farmers at above market value. The rice was obtained and kept with the idea of selling it at the right time for a record profit. However, India then began to lift bans on rice exports as well as Vietnam lowering its costs of exports. Thailand could then not sell the rice that had been collected, and the rice started to deteriorate. There were immense amounts of rice in storage and Thailand was forced to sell it at a much lower price than intended. The total cost of the plan has been estimated at eight to twenty million dollars. The coup was led by military general Prayut Chan-o-cha who then established a Junta called the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) (Taylor, Adam; Kaphle, Anup 2014). Prayut is the current head of the NCPO and concurrently the Prime Minister of Thailand to this day.

 

 

 

It is clear that Thailand’s economic past has been littered with times of political unrest and financial turmoil. Thailand is a newly industrials country (NIC) and is not an entirely developed nation, yet has outpaced its other developing counterparts. With over 40 percent of Thais working in agriculture and 16 million rice farmers working in the country, it is essential that strong policies are put in place to support them. The tourism industry in Thailand is also almost double the world’s average. The average GDP contribution being 9 percent while Thailand is currently 17.7 percent. It is clear that Thailand also has a significant reliance on foreign investment. The ‘next step’ for Thailand as dubbed by the NCPO is Thailand 4.0. Thailand is currently in Phase 3.0 with Heavy-industry and energy accounting for around 70 percent of the Thai GDP. In the past, during Thailand 1.0 it was an agrarian economy. Then during Thailand 2.0, the focus was on light industry, textiles and food processing. Thailand 4.0 has three main principles:

  1. Make Thailand a high-income nation,
  2. Make Thailand a more inclusive society,
  3. Focus on sustainable growth and development.

Thailand 4.0 is an economic model without much basis on how to get over Thailand’s ‘middle-income trap.’ Thailand will need the support of foreign specialist to make 4.0 a reality. Professional associations in Thailand among others totally oppose this, however, wishing to keep professional jobs for Thais only. For the time being the Thai people must look towards the NCPO to lead them towards economic prosperity.

 

 

 

 

The modern Phu-Tai People and their dissipation of identity

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Chom Saenmit 88 years old look back to his youth with fondness. He remembers the year the school was built and he was enrolled in the first class of his village in Ban Na Bua. Chom is Phu-Tai, not to be confused the  Budai groups of Northern Vietnam and Southern China as they so often are. The current Phu-Tai residing in Thailand are the descendants of various  groups of Phu-Tai settlers who migrated from Kham Muam and Savannakhet during the 19th century. Chom recalls the time when his school first opened, the Phu-Tai people learned with their teachers speaking Laos at first, then Thai and finally Phu-Tai. The younger generations all speak Phu-Tai, even the youngest children have a knowledge of the language; thanks to the efforts of teachers like Ajarn Darang Lang the local Anuban teacher the language is being kept alive.

 

 

There has not been much of a decline in the number of speakers of Phu-Tai according to the research of William A. Smalley 2005 . That is not to say that the Phu-Tai language is not altered more each and every year in numerous ways. In the past Phu-Tai communities very much kept to themselves, married amongst themselves and held on to their inherent traditions.

 

 

 

Chom recalls a time when parents chose the partners for their children, a tradition common among many ethnic groups in Thailand’s past. This  kept the Phu-Tai community very closed off in the past, yet keeping their culture and customs very much intact. During the last hundred years however the Phu-Tai communities have become more and more integrated into greater Thai society. Phu-Tai people are free to marry who they will now, no matter their religious or cultural background. Chom told regrettably us of how his daughter has married a man from Phuket, she lives  there with him now and has even converted to Islam. Something which would certainly not have happened in the past. Cases like his daughters have of course made numerous changes to the Phu-Tai language. Even if Phu-Tai people are marring individuals who live nearby, they may not be Phu-Tai, they are more often than not in fact Thai. This is leading to more and more Thai words being assimilated into the Phu-Tai language.

 

 

 

 

Phu-Tai  are almost entirely Buddhist now, differing from most other branches of Tai ethnicity who very much keep to their own animistic and spiritual religious practices. The Phu-Tai people do however keep many of their spiritual and medicinal traditions alive by the use of mo yao healing. This is both a herbal and shamanistic form of healing. Most of the Phu-Thai communities still follow the practice but the younger generation specifically see little merit in it. There has been significant research into the effective of Mo yao healing by numerous anthropologists and Thai medical professionals . Most notably were several studies using both quantative and qualitive data into several Phu-Tai communities throughout Kalasin province. One such study was carried out by Mr.Thanyalux Mollerup which revealed the intricate relationship between the Phu-Tai people and Mo yao healing to still be very much alive, however it is now practiced in a very different way from when it once was. The research by Thanyalux also revealed how the Thai government healthcare system has taken place of Mo yao healing in most villages, as government healthcare programs reach even the most remote peoples now. Most of the reliance now tends to be on mental and non-physical forms of healing as these can often be put down to spiritual ailments. Mo yao healing is a major part of the traditional Phu-Tai lifestyle and if it is lost so too may their ethnic identity.

 

 

The Phu-Tai people have not entirely lost their identity, however. Another individual trying to keep Phu-Tai traditions alive is Mr.Jarook Saenmit, the deputy president of the thambon sub-district. Jarook has tried several approaches to keep the Phu-Tai cultural heritage alive. He told us of how even just 50 years earlier the area surrounding where we were interviewing him was once a forest. Ban Na Bua was once very much a forested region of Isaan. He told us of how people used stilts as a way to cross through the forests and avoid the mud and water. Jarook is attempting to revitalize Phu-Tai traditions by running various activities and workshops for the locals. Some of the activities include showing the children how to use the stilts, variations of Phu-Tai dancing and singing workshops, as well as weaving and numerous other traditional practices.  No one can be certain how the Phu-Tai people will have changed in another hundred years, nor how much of their cultural identity will have survived. We can, however, be confident that through the efforts of individuals like Mr.Jarook, not all of the  Phu-Tai heritage will be lost.

How clicktivism and hashtag activism is destroying social activism

We have all heard of #BlackLivesMatter, #ALSIceBucketChallenge, and the #NODAPL movement; but how effective can hashtag activism really be?

 

Hashtag activism is a term that started appearing during the Occupy Wall Street Movement. Hashtagging and clicking are how the majority of millennials take part in modern day “Activism”. It is easy, you see a video that makes you feel something, you click it, share it and hashtag it. You then feel like you are making a difference, but are you really? The majority of millennials do use social media and believe it to be an effective tool for discussing topical social issues. The majority of the time, however, there are little or no tangible results. Do you remember the #Kony2012 and #BringBackOurGirls campaigns? The amount of attention that both of these campaigns received was unprecedented. Millions of people shared and tweeted, hashtagged and liked, but to little avail. Both of these campaigns received lots of media attention and clicktivists from all over the world made these campaigns known. Even after being dubbed the most viral video in history little difference was seen on the ground at the time. The campaign did lead to the Uganda military claiming they would capture Kony “dead or alive”, America also sent its own advisors to help. The African Union even send 5000 troops to help capture Kony. So much was done at the time but to little avail. Kony is still alive and free today, he is not, however “at large” as he was claimed to be before. He is now in hiding and has only around 100 troops compared to the 3000 he had before.

 

The majority of ” activism” nowadays is only skin deep, surface value activism; With little depth or meaning. Social activism in the past was real activism, with real risk and real tangible results. Look at the suffragettes, the coal mining communities, gay rights activists and numerous other groups who gambled with their lives and livelihoods. We now look back as we usually do, with ‘rose tinted glasses’, we idolize these people and now and paint them as heroes. There is little risk now, you feel morally superior when protesting with little risk to yourself or those around you the majority of the time. Slacktivism promotes this more and more, it does bring awareness to situations where in times gone by, no one would have even heard of them. Hashtagging and sharing is creating a generation where everyone is an activist, this is devaluing the word itself. People see something online and they can go out and protest in hundreds of thousands.  A  great number of people not even understanding fully the situation they are protesting, they have little knowledge of either side, theirs included. In the past, you totally and wholeheartedly believed in what you were fighting for. This is the great problem with the left now, they believe themselves morally superior to the right. There is no dialogue, if a Neo-Nazi approaches a podium to give their opinions, they are booed and attacked, they are called a bigot and a racist(they are by the way). This is what clicktivism is creating, a generation who believe themselves to be morally superior because they stand in some protest or share and hashtag something. It all comes down to knowledge and todays ‘activists’ seem to have little.

 

The ideology for people who who want to appear to be doing something for a particular cause with out actually having to do any thing.

The individual being a Slacktavist

great form of slacktavism is changing your facebook picture to support a cause with out actually doing anything that will make a difference. You are one great slacktavist.

 

The #NODAPL movement and its legitimacy

 

 

As the title suggests this will be an analysis of the #NoDAPL movement. It will analysis how American including many indigenous built and sustained a movement for change.  The paper will show in depth analysis of how the movement gained so much momentum due to the use of social media. The movement may have started off as simply a protest to stop a single pipeline but has now grown into something much larger that supports and is supported by many rights groups. This will be shown throughout with reference to groups such as LGBT rights movements, black lives matters as well as numerous indigenous rights groups. There is and has been much political support and opposition to the pipeline from local and regional politicians to celebrities and even president elect Donald Trump. There has been much opposition to the pipeline but a number of people do in do agree with the construction of the pipeline and that many indigenous groups are using the #NoDapl movement as leverage to tackle other issues that they are facing.

 

 

What is the #NoDAPL Movement

The No Dakota Access Pipeline hash tagged as #NoDAPL movements are a group of grassroots movement that are against the construction of a crude oil pipeline in Northern America. The pipeline would be under American propane and fortune 500 natural gas company Energy Transfer Partners. The pipeline will be projected to run from the Bakken oil fields in west Northern Dakota to the South of Illinois, passing beneath the Missouri, Mississippi rivers as well as Lake Oahe near the standing rock tribal reservation. That is a total of one thousand, one hundred and seventy two miles long. Many Indigenous groups and allies believe this to be a blatant disregard the tribes rights and poses a threat to both the clean water supply of the region and the ancient burial grounds of the standing rock Sioux tribes ancestors. The pipeline was granted permission for construction due to the Nationwide Permit 12 process that treats the pipeline as a series of small construction sites, the pipeline was granted an exemption from the environmental review required by the Clean Water  Act and the National Environmental Policy. In April 2016, three federal agencies – the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S Department of interior and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation requested a full Environmental Impact Statement  of the pipeline.

 

The Department of Interior issued the following statement as they had concerns about the safety of the water that may be affected because of the pipelines construction:

“The routing of a 12- to 30-inch crude oil pipeline in close proximity to and upstream of the Reservation is of serious concern to the Department. When establishing the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s permanent homeland, the U.S. reserved waters of sufficient quantity and quality to serve the purposes of the Reservation. The Department holds more than 800,000 acres of land in trust for the Tribe that could be impacted by a leak or spill. Further, a spill could impact the waters that the Tribe and individual tribal members residing in that area rely upon for drinking and other purposes. We believe that, if the pipeline’s current route along the edge of the Reservation remains an option, the potential impact on trust resources in this particular situation necessitates full analysis and disclosure of potential impacts through the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement.”

ICTMN Staff (April 28,2016). “Dakota Access Pipeline “Three Federal Agencies Side With Standing Rock Sioux, Demand Review”. Indian Country Today Media Network, August 6, 2016

A cultural preservation and resistance camp was set up by the standing rock cultural and Historic Preservation officer, named the Sacred Stone Camp. September 2016 she said:

“Of the 380 archaeological sites that face desecration along the entire pipeline route, from North Dakota to Illinois, 26 of them are right here at the confluence of these two rivers. It is a historic trading ground, a place held sacred not only by the Sioux Nations, but also the Arikara, the Mandan, and the Northern Cheyenne…

The U.S. government is wiping out our most important cultural and spiritual areas. And as it erases our footprint from the world, it erases us as a people. These sites must be protected, or our world will end, it is that simple. Our young people have a right to know who they are. They have a right to language, to culture, to tradition. The way they learn these things is through connection to our lands and our history.

If we allow an oil company to dig through and destroy our histories, our ancestors, our hearts and souls as a people, is that not genocide?”

( Bravebull Allard, LaDonna (September 3, 2016). “Why the Founder of Standing Rock Sioux Camp Can’t Forget the Whitestone Massacre. Yes! Magazine. October 25, 2016

The Standing Rock Sioux nation is fighting for what they believe to be their cultural heritage and believe that if the Dakota Access Pipeline goes forward then all of their freedoms may be put in jeopardy.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How People are Resisting the Dakota Access Pipeline and how technology has helped them

 

As mentioned above the main place of gathering resistance is the Standing Rock Sacred Stone Camp and the subsequent that appeared after its creation. These are gathering points where people gather to resist the Dakota Access Pipeline both physically and ‘spiritually’. There has been hundreds of indigenous tribes gathered at these camps as well as thousands of allies. Together with the The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe they filed an injunction against the U.S Army Corps of Engineers to stop building the pipeline. People have been using these rallying points to peacefully demonstrate and resist the building of the pipeline. People have been holding banners and marching, chanting as well as standing in the way of machinery used for construction of the pipeline. Many Indigenous people and allies have physically tied themselves to the equipment and machinery used for the construction of the pipeline, resulting in harsh retaliation from the pipeline guards.   As well as being there physically there has been a huge amount of aid granted through social media and technology. A group that has helped standing rock immensely is the team behind the digital smoke signals website. Upon entering the site, user are met with the statement:

Indigenizing Technology: Walking the footsteps of our Ancestors as we educate the world through e-Learning, social networking & Film-making.

This is stated on the website on the main page as well as the stamp “Indigenous networking”. The site is a hub of activity supporting anything to do with indigenous people and rights related to such within America. Every morning the site has a live drone feed of the disputed areas in and around standing rock territory. The team of drone operators stream daily with an overhead view of the situation and giving updates as and when they develop. Using footage captured from the drones they have many many successful short movies gaining millions of views on YouTube. The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the Standing Rock Dakota Access Pipeline Opposition in conjunction with Digital Smoke Signals creating a trend in which they were asking people to ‘check-in’ at Standing Rock. This confused the armed guards working for the Pipeline as there was no way to know how many people were there as hundreds of thousands of people were checking in. Many other social movements have stood with standing rock such as the Black Lives Matters  movement, LGTBT as well as many military veteran movement. This statement can be read on their website at blacklivesmatter.com :

“Black Lives Matter stands with Standing Rock. As there are many diverse manifestations of Blackness, and Black people are also displaced Indigenous peoples, we are clear that there is no Black liberation without Indigenous sovereignty. Environmental racism is not limited to pipelines on Indigenous land, because we know that the chemicals used for fracking and the materials used to build pipelines are also used in water containment and sanitation plants in Black communities like Flint, Michigan. The same companies that build pipelines are the same companies that build factories that emit carcinogenic chemicals into Black communities, leading to some of the highest rates of cancer, hysterectomies, miscarriages, and asthma in the country. Our liberation is only realized when all people are free, free to access clean water, free from institutional racism, free to live whole and healthy lives not subjected to state-sanctioned violence. America has committed and is committing genocide against Native American peoples and Black people. We are in an ongoing struggle for our lives and this struggle is shaped by the shared history between Indigenous peoples and Black people in America, connecting that stolen land and stolen labor from Black and brown people built this country.”

 

Many notable celebrities have stood up for the water protectors and shared and contributed to the hatshtag #NoDAPL and #WATERISLIFE. This included many A-List celebrities such as the entire cast of the Avengers movies and the cast of the upcoming Justice League movies. Many celebrities have also made appearances at peaceful protests and demonstrations Leonardo Dicaprio posted on his Twitter account:

” Standing w/ the Great Sioux Nation to protect their water & lands. Take a stand: http://www.change.org/rezpectourwater #RezpectOurWater #KeepItInTheGround

Whist actors like Chris Hemsworth posted the following tagging even President Barack Obama in his post:

“I stand with the Standing Rock. Join me and tell @barackobama to say #NoDAPL by signing the petition.”

These celebrities amongst so many others have made a huge difference the support that the Standing Rock Tribes gain dues to their influential status and the publicity gained because of that. Not only is it celebrities that have reached out online to gain support for the movement but young tribe members themselves have created avenues of aid, such as the change.org petition that the celebrities are referring to and have shared . The petition was written by 13-year-old Anna Lee Rain YellowHammer on behalf of Standing Rock youth. It states:

A private oil company wants to build a pipeline that would cross the Missouri River less than a mile away from the Standing Rock Reservation and if we don’t stop it, it will poison our river and threaten the health of my community when it leaks.

My friends and I have played in the river since we were little; my great grandparents raised chickens and horses along it. When the pipeline leaks, it will wipe out plants and animals, ruin our drinking water and poison the center of community life for the Standing Rock Sioux.

The petition has been signed by nearly 46,000 supporters, just short of 4,000 signatures to reach the 50,000 goal.

(Ecowatch.com, Leonardo DiCaprio Stands With Great Sioux Nation to Stop Dakota Access PipelineMay 10, 2016)

It is clear that technology such as social media is pivotal to the success of any social movement in the modern world. With it people are able to share, tweet, and photograph anything and everything and have it uploaded instantly. This is a means of garnering support which was simply impossible before and social movements such as #NoDAPL may have died away already as they would not be able to broadcast their case on a national or international level.

 

 

Brutality of the guards

There has been much controversy over the brutality and harshness of the guards and officer working around the contested territory. Counter current news.com reported “Violence is breaking out at the Dakota Access Protest site, but the protesters have nothing to do with it. Pipeline police, bolstered by the North Dakota National Guard and sheriffs imported from around the country, have turned the standoff into a war zone. Water protectors are regularly pepper sprayed, tear gassed, and violently arrested. Over the weekend, 127 people were detained in the biggest mass arrest to date.

Militarized police at the Dakota Access Pipeline site are decked out in riot gear, armed with military grade weapons, use armored cars or MRAPs with snipers on top of them, and have regularly used LRADs, a type of mass crowd dispersal weapon that uses a high pitched noise to hurt people’s ears —sometimes permanently.

Early reports of protesters being armed and violent have proven to be instances of misinformation spread by law enforcement apparently seeking to demonize the opposition. No credible reports of violence by the protesters have been confirmed or prosecuted. Nearly all arrests stem from trespassing charges or crimes of journalism.

When protesters initially began using civil disobedience to physically shut down the Dakota Access Pipeline site, they were confronted violently by security guards from British mercenary firm G4S. The mercs sicced dogs and used pepper spray on the protesters in an assault that went viral and helped catalyze even more support for the water protectors.

(Countercurrentnews.com, What You Need To Know About Police Brutality Against DAPL Pipeline Protesters and How You Can Help, Friday, January 27, 2017)

It is clear that even if the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is lawfully wrong to be stopping the advancement of the pipeline, the retaliation has been unwarranted and much harsher than it needs to be to stop them. These acts have not gone unnoticed however and have been publically viewed and shared online, much to the dismay of the pipelines supporters.

Controversy of the Pipelines resistance

Many people believe that the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and their allies are in fact using the cover of the #NoDAPL movement as cover for ulterior motives. For example the tribe claims that the pipeline encroaches on indigenous lands. In fact the pipeline has been rerouted many times to avoid any lands belonging to the tribe but does not actually touch Standing Rock Tribal lands. Many protesters claim that the pipeline will endanger the pipeline will endanger the tribes water supply but in fact eight pipelines already cross the Missouri river and carry hundreds of thousands of barrels every day and a pipeline is by far the safest way of transporting the crude oil , especially comparing it to the many seven hundred and fifty rail-carts used currently. Another claim is that the tribal community was not consulted when in fact  389 meetings took place between the U.S. Army Corps and 55 tribes about the Dakota Access project. In addition the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe met individually with the U.S. Army Corps nearly a dozen times to discuss archaeological and other surveys conducted to finalize the Dakota Access route. These claims as well as numerous others show the controversy of the legitimacy of the protesting. There may be another angle for the Standing Rock Tribe and it’s allies such as wanting to oppose fracking within the region, opposing fossil fuel use and many other possible reasons.

 

 

 

It seems that movements such as the #NoDAPL movement simply could not exist without the aid of technology and social media. Before the invention of social media movements would simply have lost momentum and died away. Globalization plays a role in this, although many social movements have came into existence to combat globalization. Due to the weakening of national borders and online freedoms social movements are able to gain power for themselves on a global scale like never before. The #NoDAPL movement for example has created social change by standing against ‘big oil’ and successfully halting the construction of the pipeline for now. Political and social rights have always been an issue for indigenous groups, particularly in America. The #NoDAPL movement  gained global attention and shows the power available and means of gaining it in the digital age.