Brief Economic History of Thailand

Thailand can be broken into four main regions. The North with its mountainous and fertile lands viable for growing rice and teak. Central Thailand home to Bangkok “City of Angels” and the fertile Chao Phraya basin. The North East (Essan), the driest, least productive and least modern place in Thailand. The South, with its moist atmosphere where many produce rubber, tropical crops, and tin. Thailand the “Land of the free” was a country living in the ideal of attaining a virtuous life by shaping their character to Buddhist principles where goodness was prized over personal wealth. Thailand has now changed from an absolute monarchy rule, to one of self-sustained Democracy. Buddhism has supplied cognitive and evaluative elements that have been integrated into every aspect of Thai identity, even If the individual is Thai or part of a Thai ethnic minority. Thailand is an extremely hierarchal society, If you are born into a ‘High-so’  family – as they are typically referred to here – your sense of identity is of course very different than if you are born into a ‘Low-so’ family. Individuals who are born into ‘High-so’ families often have a feeling of superiority over those that are born into ‘Low-so’ families.

 

 

 

Wetland agriculture has always played a significant role in Thailand’s economy. Known previously as Siam, Thailand opened to foreign contact in the pre-industrial era. Previously, Thailand was a feudal society mostly run by noble families. The Thai economy changed from one of subsidence to cash during the nineteenth century by the opening of the commercial rice market, during this time the power of the noble families was weakened as more rights were given to farmers by the King. (Jeffrey Hayes, 2008). Thailand slowly became one of the major trade hubs in Asia, mostly trading with Chinese merchants, many of whom migrated and attained high positions within the country. Later, deals with Europe increased, with treaties being created to guarantee the rights and privileges of European traders. Later amendments were made extending these opportunities to Americans also. Thailand’s economy eventually grew until it began to work on a global scale. During the time of the Vietnam war and the late 1980’s and early 1990’s Thailand began to grow at a level where the economy started to rival that of other developed nations such as Taiwan and South Korea. Growing steadily at eight percent per year between 1985 and 1995 and peaking at 13 percent in 1988. This growth continued until the great depression and then later the Asian financial crisis which originated in Thailand in 1997 because of the financial collapse of the Thai Baht. The crisis was the worst economic crisis ever to hit Thailand and was dubbed the Tom Yum Goong crisis (Spicy Shrimp Soup) due to the immense heat and stress that people felt at that time. There was action taken by many actors at the time, including the Thai monarchy. Bhumibol Adulyadej was the King at this time and had toured the country for years, especially in rural and impoverished regions such as Essan; considered to be the most impoverished region of the nation. King Bhumibol had significantly lectured on the benefits of following a sufficiency based economy. The focus being on an economy that would allow the Thai people to support themselves (UNDP report 2007). The sufficiency economy philosophy is made up of three main components these being: wisdom, moderation, and prudence. Sufficiency economy has much in common with Buddhist economics, a spiritual belief that gross national happiness is more important than gross domestic product. As Zsolnai Laszlo stated, Buddhist economics can be summed up as when “the marginal productivity of labor utilized in producing consumption goods is equal to the marginal effectiveness of the meditation involved in economizing on consumption without bringing about any change in satisfaction” (Zsolnai, Laszlo, 2011). The king among other members of the monarchy carried out a number of royal projects hoping to alleviate some of the effects of the Tom Yum Goong crisis.

 

 

Thailand’s focus for the next few years was recovery. After facing a number of natural disasters and political turmoil, Thailand was on its way to recovery. This was what led to the rise of Thaksin Shinawatra and his policy which was later named ‘Thaksinomics’ which had a focus on promoting greater infrastructure and development in rural Thailand. Thaksin was voted into office in 2001 and although the first year saw as little as 2.2 percent GDP growth, the following years saw positive growth from 2002-2004 with rates of 5.3, 7.1 and 6.3 (Aidan Jones, 2014). This again led to his party having another huge victory in 2005 where he was re-elected. There was much opposition to Thaksinomics amid reports of corruption, which later led to the military coup in 2006 while Thaksin was giving a speech at the United Nations general assembly in New York. This brought the GDP growth rate back down to 4.4 percent in 2006. Then in 2008, there was even more political turmoil between opposing groups, those who supported Thaksin and those who supported the leader of the military coup. The following years were filled with political and financial turmoil, never again having the steady growth of Thaksin Shinawatra’s Thaksonomics. In 2011 Thaksin’s sister, Yingluck Shinawatra was elected and was Prime Minister for a further three years until she was ousted in May 2014.The rice scheme was in many ways what led to her election in 2011 and subsequent removal in 2014. Yingluck promised to buy rice from Thai farmers at above market value. The rice was obtained and kept with the idea of selling it at the right time for a record profit. However, India then began to lift bans on rice exports as well as Vietnam lowering its costs of exports. Thailand could then not sell the rice that had been collected, and the rice started to deteriorate. There were immense amounts of rice in storage and Thailand was forced to sell it at a much lower price than intended. The total cost of the plan has been estimated at eight to twenty million dollars. The coup was led by military general Prayut Chan-o-cha who then established a Junta called the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) (Taylor, Adam; Kaphle, Anup 2014). Prayut is the current head of the NCPO and concurrently the Prime Minister of Thailand to this day.

 

 

 

It is clear that Thailand’s economic past has been littered with times of political unrest and financial turmoil. Thailand is a newly industrials country (NIC) and is not an entirely developed nation, yet has outpaced its other developing counterparts. With over 40 percent of Thais working in agriculture and 16 million rice farmers working in the country, it is essential that strong policies are put in place to support them. The tourism industry in Thailand is also almost double the world’s average. The average GDP contribution being 9 percent while Thailand is currently 17.7 percent. It is clear that Thailand also has a significant reliance on foreign investment. The ‘next step’ for Thailand as dubbed by the NCPO is Thailand 4.0. Thailand is currently in Phase 3.0 with Heavy-industry and energy accounting for around 70 percent of the Thai GDP. In the past, during Thailand 1.0 it was an agrarian economy. Then during Thailand 2.0, the focus was on light industry, textiles and food processing. Thailand 4.0 has three main principles:

  1. Make Thailand a high-income nation,
  2. Make Thailand a more inclusive society,
  3. Focus on sustainable growth and development.

Thailand 4.0 is an economic model without much basis on how to get over Thailand’s ‘middle-income trap.’ Thailand will need the support of foreign specialist to make 4.0 a reality. Professional associations in Thailand among others totally oppose this, however, wishing to keep professional jobs for Thais only. For the time being the Thai people must look towards the NCPO to lead them towards economic prosperity.

 

 

 

 

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How clicktivism and hashtag activism is destroying social activism

We have all heard of #BlackLivesMatter, #ALSIceBucketChallenge, and the #NODAPL movement; but how effective can hashtag activism really be?

 

Hashtag activism is a term that started appearing during the Occupy Wall Street Movement. Hashtagging and clicking are how the majority of millennials take part in modern day “Activism”. It is easy, you see a video that makes you feel something, you click it, share it and hashtag it. You then feel like you are making a difference, but are you really? The majority of millennials do use social media and believe it to be an effective tool for discussing topical social issues. The majority of the time, however, there are little or no tangible results. Do you remember the #Kony2012 and #BringBackOurGirls campaigns? The amount of attention that both of these campaigns received was unprecedented. Millions of people shared and tweeted, hashtagged and liked, but to little avail. Both of these campaigns received lots of media attention and clicktivists from all over the world made these campaigns known. Even after being dubbed the most viral video in history little difference was seen on the ground at the time. The campaign did lead to the Uganda military claiming they would capture Kony “dead or alive”, America also sent its own advisors to help. The African Union even send 5000 troops to help capture Kony. So much was done at the time but to little avail. Kony is still alive and free today, he is not, however “at large” as he was claimed to be before. He is now in hiding and has only around 100 troops compared to the 3000 he had before.

 

The majority of ” activism” nowadays is only skin deep, surface value activism; With little depth or meaning. Social activism in the past was real activism, with real risk and real tangible results. Look at the suffragettes, the coal mining communities, gay rights activists and numerous other groups who gambled with their lives and livelihoods. We now look back as we usually do, with ‘rose tinted glasses’, we idolize these people and now and paint them as heroes. There is little risk now, you feel morally superior when protesting with little risk to yourself or those around you the majority of the time. Slacktivism promotes this more and more, it does bring awareness to situations where in times gone by, no one would have even heard of them. Hashtagging and sharing is creating a generation where everyone is an activist, this is devaluing the word itself. People see something online and they can go out and protest in hundreds of thousands.  A  great number of people not even understanding fully the situation they are protesting, they have little knowledge of either side, theirs included. In the past, you totally and wholeheartedly believed in what you were fighting for. This is the great problem with the left now, they believe themselves morally superior to the right. There is no dialogue, if a Neo-Nazi approaches a podium to give their opinions, they are booed and attacked, they are called a bigot and a racist(they are by the way). This is what clicktivism is creating, a generation who believe themselves to be morally superior because they stand in some protest or share and hashtag something. It all comes down to knowledge and todays ‘activists’ seem to have little.

 

The ideology for people who who want to appear to be doing something for a particular cause with out actually having to do any thing.

The individual being a Slacktavist

great form of slacktavism is changing your facebook picture to support a cause with out actually doing anything that will make a difference. You are one great slacktavist.

 

What makes us human? Genetics or Culture?

We are sapiens of the Homo Genus, this is fact but what is it that makes us ourselves. What is it that makes us exactly human and not merely another branch of the hominid tree. Some argue that it is our “unique” genetics, some say it is our abilities and advanced forms of social learning.  I do believe it is both genetics and culture that clearly defines us as human. Genetics is what has allowed us to walk and talk, genetics has given us opposable thumbs and advanced vocal cords. Of course, earlier hominids could also walk and talk to a degree. Genetics has given us a  large brain and large frontal lobes, the ability to form close social groups and learn from and teach each other. It is these along with concepts such as morality, ethics of good and evil that makes us human. It could be said that genetics has given humans the ability to laugh and culture has given us something to laugh at.

The #NODAPL movement and its legitimacy

 

 

As the title suggests this will be an analysis of the #NoDAPL movement. It will analysis how American including many indigenous built and sustained a movement for change.  The paper will show in depth analysis of how the movement gained so much momentum due to the use of social media. The movement may have started off as simply a protest to stop a single pipeline but has now grown into something much larger that supports and is supported by many rights groups. This will be shown throughout with reference to groups such as LGBT rights movements, black lives matters as well as numerous indigenous rights groups. There is and has been much political support and opposition to the pipeline from local and regional politicians to celebrities and even president elect Donald Trump. There has been much opposition to the pipeline but a number of people do in do agree with the construction of the pipeline and that many indigenous groups are using the #NoDapl movement as leverage to tackle other issues that they are facing.

 

 

What is the #NoDAPL Movement

The No Dakota Access Pipeline hash tagged as #NoDAPL movements are a group of grassroots movement that are against the construction of a crude oil pipeline in Northern America. The pipeline would be under American propane and fortune 500 natural gas company Energy Transfer Partners. The pipeline will be projected to run from the Bakken oil fields in west Northern Dakota to the South of Illinois, passing beneath the Missouri, Mississippi rivers as well as Lake Oahe near the standing rock tribal reservation. That is a total of one thousand, one hundred and seventy two miles long. Many Indigenous groups and allies believe this to be a blatant disregard the tribes rights and poses a threat to both the clean water supply of the region and the ancient burial grounds of the standing rock Sioux tribes ancestors. The pipeline was granted permission for construction due to the Nationwide Permit 12 process that treats the pipeline as a series of small construction sites, the pipeline was granted an exemption from the environmental review required by the Clean Water  Act and the National Environmental Policy. In April 2016, three federal agencies – the U.S Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S Department of interior and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation requested a full Environmental Impact Statement  of the pipeline.

 

The Department of Interior issued the following statement as they had concerns about the safety of the water that may be affected because of the pipelines construction:

“The routing of a 12- to 30-inch crude oil pipeline in close proximity to and upstream of the Reservation is of serious concern to the Department. When establishing the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s permanent homeland, the U.S. reserved waters of sufficient quantity and quality to serve the purposes of the Reservation. The Department holds more than 800,000 acres of land in trust for the Tribe that could be impacted by a leak or spill. Further, a spill could impact the waters that the Tribe and individual tribal members residing in that area rely upon for drinking and other purposes. We believe that, if the pipeline’s current route along the edge of the Reservation remains an option, the potential impact on trust resources in this particular situation necessitates full analysis and disclosure of potential impacts through the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement.”

ICTMN Staff (April 28,2016). “Dakota Access Pipeline “Three Federal Agencies Side With Standing Rock Sioux, Demand Review”. Indian Country Today Media Network, August 6, 2016

A cultural preservation and resistance camp was set up by the standing rock cultural and Historic Preservation officer, named the Sacred Stone Camp. September 2016 she said:

“Of the 380 archaeological sites that face desecration along the entire pipeline route, from North Dakota to Illinois, 26 of them are right here at the confluence of these two rivers. It is a historic trading ground, a place held sacred not only by the Sioux Nations, but also the Arikara, the Mandan, and the Northern Cheyenne…

The U.S. government is wiping out our most important cultural and spiritual areas. And as it erases our footprint from the world, it erases us as a people. These sites must be protected, or our world will end, it is that simple. Our young people have a right to know who they are. They have a right to language, to culture, to tradition. The way they learn these things is through connection to our lands and our history.

If we allow an oil company to dig through and destroy our histories, our ancestors, our hearts and souls as a people, is that not genocide?”

( Bravebull Allard, LaDonna (September 3, 2016). “Why the Founder of Standing Rock Sioux Camp Can’t Forget the Whitestone Massacre. Yes! Magazine. October 25, 2016

The Standing Rock Sioux nation is fighting for what they believe to be their cultural heritage and believe that if the Dakota Access Pipeline goes forward then all of their freedoms may be put in jeopardy.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How People are Resisting the Dakota Access Pipeline and how technology has helped them

 

As mentioned above the main place of gathering resistance is the Standing Rock Sacred Stone Camp and the subsequent that appeared after its creation. These are gathering points where people gather to resist the Dakota Access Pipeline both physically and ‘spiritually’. There has been hundreds of indigenous tribes gathered at these camps as well as thousands of allies. Together with the The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe they filed an injunction against the U.S Army Corps of Engineers to stop building the pipeline. People have been using these rallying points to peacefully demonstrate and resist the building of the pipeline. People have been holding banners and marching, chanting as well as standing in the way of machinery used for construction of the pipeline. Many Indigenous people and allies have physically tied themselves to the equipment and machinery used for the construction of the pipeline, resulting in harsh retaliation from the pipeline guards.   As well as being there physically there has been a huge amount of aid granted through social media and technology. A group that has helped standing rock immensely is the team behind the digital smoke signals website. Upon entering the site, user are met with the statement:

Indigenizing Technology: Walking the footsteps of our Ancestors as we educate the world through e-Learning, social networking & Film-making.

This is stated on the website on the main page as well as the stamp “Indigenous networking”. The site is a hub of activity supporting anything to do with indigenous people and rights related to such within America. Every morning the site has a live drone feed of the disputed areas in and around standing rock territory. The team of drone operators stream daily with an overhead view of the situation and giving updates as and when they develop. Using footage captured from the drones they have many many successful short movies gaining millions of views on YouTube. The Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and the Standing Rock Dakota Access Pipeline Opposition in conjunction with Digital Smoke Signals creating a trend in which they were asking people to ‘check-in’ at Standing Rock. This confused the armed guards working for the Pipeline as there was no way to know how many people were there as hundreds of thousands of people were checking in. Many other social movements have stood with standing rock such as the Black Lives Matters  movement, LGTBT as well as many military veteran movement. This statement can be read on their website at blacklivesmatter.com :

“Black Lives Matter stands with Standing Rock. As there are many diverse manifestations of Blackness, and Black people are also displaced Indigenous peoples, we are clear that there is no Black liberation without Indigenous sovereignty. Environmental racism is not limited to pipelines on Indigenous land, because we know that the chemicals used for fracking and the materials used to build pipelines are also used in water containment and sanitation plants in Black communities like Flint, Michigan. The same companies that build pipelines are the same companies that build factories that emit carcinogenic chemicals into Black communities, leading to some of the highest rates of cancer, hysterectomies, miscarriages, and asthma in the country. Our liberation is only realized when all people are free, free to access clean water, free from institutional racism, free to live whole and healthy lives not subjected to state-sanctioned violence. America has committed and is committing genocide against Native American peoples and Black people. We are in an ongoing struggle for our lives and this struggle is shaped by the shared history between Indigenous peoples and Black people in America, connecting that stolen land and stolen labor from Black and brown people built this country.”

 

Many notable celebrities have stood up for the water protectors and shared and contributed to the hatshtag #NoDAPL and #WATERISLIFE. This included many A-List celebrities such as the entire cast of the Avengers movies and the cast of the upcoming Justice League movies. Many celebrities have also made appearances at peaceful protests and demonstrations Leonardo Dicaprio posted on his Twitter account:

” Standing w/ the Great Sioux Nation to protect their water & lands. Take a stand: http://www.change.org/rezpectourwater #RezpectOurWater #KeepItInTheGround

Whist actors like Chris Hemsworth posted the following tagging even President Barack Obama in his post:

“I stand with the Standing Rock. Join me and tell @barackobama to say #NoDAPL by signing the petition.”

These celebrities amongst so many others have made a huge difference the support that the Standing Rock Tribes gain dues to their influential status and the publicity gained because of that. Not only is it celebrities that have reached out online to gain support for the movement but young tribe members themselves have created avenues of aid, such as the change.org petition that the celebrities are referring to and have shared . The petition was written by 13-year-old Anna Lee Rain YellowHammer on behalf of Standing Rock youth. It states:

A private oil company wants to build a pipeline that would cross the Missouri River less than a mile away from the Standing Rock Reservation and if we don’t stop it, it will poison our river and threaten the health of my community when it leaks.

My friends and I have played in the river since we were little; my great grandparents raised chickens and horses along it. When the pipeline leaks, it will wipe out plants and animals, ruin our drinking water and poison the center of community life for the Standing Rock Sioux.

The petition has been signed by nearly 46,000 supporters, just short of 4,000 signatures to reach the 50,000 goal.

(Ecowatch.com, Leonardo DiCaprio Stands With Great Sioux Nation to Stop Dakota Access PipelineMay 10, 2016)

It is clear that technology such as social media is pivotal to the success of any social movement in the modern world. With it people are able to share, tweet, and photograph anything and everything and have it uploaded instantly. This is a means of garnering support which was simply impossible before and social movements such as #NoDAPL may have died away already as they would not be able to broadcast their case on a national or international level.

 

 

Brutality of the guards

There has been much controversy over the brutality and harshness of the guards and officer working around the contested territory. Counter current news.com reported “Violence is breaking out at the Dakota Access Protest site, but the protesters have nothing to do with it. Pipeline police, bolstered by the North Dakota National Guard and sheriffs imported from around the country, have turned the standoff into a war zone. Water protectors are regularly pepper sprayed, tear gassed, and violently arrested. Over the weekend, 127 people were detained in the biggest mass arrest to date.

Militarized police at the Dakota Access Pipeline site are decked out in riot gear, armed with military grade weapons, use armored cars or MRAPs with snipers on top of them, and have regularly used LRADs, a type of mass crowd dispersal weapon that uses a high pitched noise to hurt people’s ears —sometimes permanently.

Early reports of protesters being armed and violent have proven to be instances of misinformation spread by law enforcement apparently seeking to demonize the opposition. No credible reports of violence by the protesters have been confirmed or prosecuted. Nearly all arrests stem from trespassing charges or crimes of journalism.

When protesters initially began using civil disobedience to physically shut down the Dakota Access Pipeline site, they were confronted violently by security guards from British mercenary firm G4S. The mercs sicced dogs and used pepper spray on the protesters in an assault that went viral and helped catalyze even more support for the water protectors.

(Countercurrentnews.com, What You Need To Know About Police Brutality Against DAPL Pipeline Protesters and How You Can Help, Friday, January 27, 2017)

It is clear that even if the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is lawfully wrong to be stopping the advancement of the pipeline, the retaliation has been unwarranted and much harsher than it needs to be to stop them. These acts have not gone unnoticed however and have been publically viewed and shared online, much to the dismay of the pipelines supporters.

Controversy of the Pipelines resistance

Many people believe that the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and their allies are in fact using the cover of the #NoDAPL movement as cover for ulterior motives. For example the tribe claims that the pipeline encroaches on indigenous lands. In fact the pipeline has been rerouted many times to avoid any lands belonging to the tribe but does not actually touch Standing Rock Tribal lands. Many protesters claim that the pipeline will endanger the pipeline will endanger the tribes water supply but in fact eight pipelines already cross the Missouri river and carry hundreds of thousands of barrels every day and a pipeline is by far the safest way of transporting the crude oil , especially comparing it to the many seven hundred and fifty rail-carts used currently. Another claim is that the tribal community was not consulted when in fact  389 meetings took place between the U.S. Army Corps and 55 tribes about the Dakota Access project. In addition the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe met individually with the U.S. Army Corps nearly a dozen times to discuss archaeological and other surveys conducted to finalize the Dakota Access route. These claims as well as numerous others show the controversy of the legitimacy of the protesting. There may be another angle for the Standing Rock Tribe and it’s allies such as wanting to oppose fracking within the region, opposing fossil fuel use and many other possible reasons.

 

 

 

It seems that movements such as the #NoDAPL movement simply could not exist without the aid of technology and social media. Before the invention of social media movements would simply have lost momentum and died away. Globalization plays a role in this, although many social movements have came into existence to combat globalization. Due to the weakening of national borders and online freedoms social movements are able to gain power for themselves on a global scale like never before. The #NoDAPL movement for example has created social change by standing against ‘big oil’ and successfully halting the construction of the pipeline for now. Political and social rights have always been an issue for indigenous groups, particularly in America. The #NoDAPL movement  gained global attention and shows the power available and means of gaining it in the digital age.

 

 

The Thai Bhikkuni and their role in promoting female empowerment in Thailand

 

The majority of people in Thailand are devout Buddhists, with over 95 percent of the country following Buddhism and its entailed traditions and practices. Buddhism therefore, of course, plays an integral part in the culmination of Thai cultural identity. Buddhism is a part of every aspect of life in Thailand, from giving alms in the morning to the monks and children saying Buddhist prayers in the morning and the majority of Thai men being a monk at least for a short period of their life; Buddhist traditions are seen and felt everywhere in Thai society; As is the presence of the male dominated monkhood.

 

As Thailand is heavily influenced by Buddhist values, the Buddhist monks are of course the curators of the religion. Thai monks are seen and felt everywhere with over 32,000 monasteries, 265,956 monks and 87,695 novices (Bangkok Post survey 2017).Monks take part in many official ceremonies daily throughout for example monks may bless a house or a new car, offer prayers at a wedding(Less than 100 years ago, this would never have happened as monks were seen as an ill omen, only to attending funerals): monks may offer prayers for a new business and any number of other occasions. Although monks are numerous in Thailand and come from a variety of social and economic backgrounds (Even the current King has ordained) they do have one thing in common, they are all male. Monks being the representatives of a religion which take part in every part of daily Thai life and they are all male, there is another group of individuals who also embody traditional Buddhist values, the ‘rebel monks’ the Thai Bhikkunni. The Bhiksunni are a group of female monks ordained in the Theravada tradition. Many Bhikkunni have faced opposition in Thailand, both from the male dominated Sangha Supreme Council of Thailand (Buddhist governing body in Thailand) and from laypeople (non-ordained individuals).  This paper will be an assessment of  role that men have in challenging gender equality, namely the male dominated Sangha in Thailand. It will discuss if it is more important for women to form their owns groups, or to work alongside with men. The gains that could  be made through gender equality  programmes targeting both men and women will be discussed as well as what may be appropriate or undesirable.

 

 

 

Chatsumarn Kabilsingh Shatsena now known as Dhammananda Bhikkhuni was the first modern woman to receive full ordination in the Theravada tradition of Buddhism in Thailand. Born in 1944 Chatsumarn Kabilsingh Shatsena to Voramai Kabilsingh also known as Ta Tao Fa Tzu as she was ordained in the Dharmaguptaka  school of Buddhism and Kokiat Shatsena Chatsumarn has to lead a fascinating life and is now the abbess of  Songdhammakalyani Monastery, the only Bhikkunni temple in Thailand. Translated as the “temple where women uphold the Dharma”. Dhammanda Bhikkunni was ordained on 28 February 2003 in Sri Lanka after which she returned to Thailand.(Snyder, 2003). There has of course been much opposition to the Bhikkuni order in Thailand. Many Bhikku (Male monks) including the Ecclesiastical Council disagree with the ordination of Bhikkuni in Thailand believing their ordination to be illegitimate. According to Metthanando Bhikku a prominent monk in Thailand and member of the Ecclesiastical Council:”Equal rights for men and women are denied by the Ecclesiastical Council. No woman can be ordained as a Theravada Buddhist nun or bhikkhuni in Thailand. The Council has issued a national warning that any monk who ordains female monks will be severely punished.”( Metthanando Bhikku,2005).According to Buddhist historians, the original order of the Bhikkuni was set up several years after the Bhikku order at the request of Mahapajapati who was the Buddhas aunt and carer after the death of his mother and her followers. According to tradition, the Buddha denied her several times before allowing her to ordain.This was not however due to her gender but was in fact because they were courtly women used to the extravagances of palace life and would find the harsh lives of monks of that time a struggle. According to Dhammananda Bhikkhuni: “Many people in Thailand both monastics and laypeople do not realise that there has been Bhikkunni in the region before. According to Not many in Thailand understand Buddhism truly like when the Buddha first said no to his aunt and her followers when they asked to be ordained, this was not because of their gender, but because they were women of the court, they could not handle the conditions. Many forget that the Buddha was from a time when social values were different.”( Dhammananda Bhikkhuni 2017). Since the ordinations of Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, a number of other Bhikkhuni have been ordained in Thailand now number numbering over 100 Bhikkhuni throughout Thailand.Not including the number of Sramaneris(Novices) and Mae Ji’s.

 

Due to the prohibition set by the Sangha, many Thai women instead volunteer to become Mae ji’s.Mae ji’s try to lead a devout life according to the Buddhas teachings, shaving their heads like monks and wearing white following 8-10 precepts(holy rules that must be followed) as opposed to the 331 precepts for Bhikkhuni and 227 for monks.Mae ji’s do not receive the benefits of monastics but are denied rights are are offered to lay people throughout Thailand such as being able to vote or stand for election. According to Dhammananda  Bhikkhuni Mae ji’s are a new concept and not part of traditional Buddhism: “I depend on you and you depend on me, my grandmother was illiterate, and she was a Mae ji, yet when it came to praying she knew everything. She prayed beautifully.Mae Ji’s are not ordained, nor do they receive the benefits of being so.In fact, they are more often treated like servants, having to wash the monk’s clothes and cleaning. Look at the four pillars of the Buddhist community, like legs on a chair, The Bhikkus(monks) Bhikkhunis(nuns), Laymen and Laywomen.Mae Ji’s are a new concept”.Many Mae JI’s face discrimination throughout Thailand, not only do they not have the benefits offered to other monastics such as free transport, etc., many believe they become Mae Ji’s for the wrong reasons. Many Thai people look down on Mae Ji’s feeling that they had no other option, that they could not find a husband or are using the cloak of becoming a Mae Ji to escape other problems in their life.

 

Early every morning in Thailand the streets are lined with people throughout the country, waiting to give alms to the monks. This is part of the merit system in Buddhism which is believed to bring benefits to the next life. The alms givers are predominately women however, some folklore says that women are born with bad karma and must make more merit in this life to become a man in the next. In the same sense that transgender individuals are born in the wrong body due to transgressions in their previous life, this is not true to the Buddhas original teachings however . According to Buddhist tradition It is believed that everyone is born with both good and bad karma within them and all have the same potential to reach enlightenment. It is cultural , in that same sense the culture protects you.( Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, 2017).It is not only in alms giving where women take the prominent role, also cleaning at the temple, washing , brushing and preparing for  the numerous religious festivals that take place all year round. Like the Mae Ji’s at temples many Thai women still take on the domestic responsibilities , even when it comes to religious duties. After offering alms and preparing comes the time for the religious ceremonies, this is a time when women do not take a prominent role. During religious ceremony the monks sit elevated, with the grandfathers and oldest men sitting closest to the monks, and then come the fathers and then the sons. At the back sit the women and daughters, even though the majority of alms giving  and preparation  for the ceremony was carried out by women, they sit furthest away from the monks and instead the men of the family take control of orchestrating the other attendees.History is written by by men, about men, so we start to write a story about women, from a woman’s- that is a different voice.( Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, 2012).It is not only in alms giving where women take the prominent role, also cleaning. Perspective As was mentioned before, Buddhism is a significant part of Thai peoples cultural identity, yet the male figures are dominant in Buddhism in Thailand and are the leading figures who govern the dissemination of Buddhist and patriarchal ideology. It is seen that people are punished and rewarded for carrying on in this way, people are encouraged to conform and what is viewed as masculine is also seen as superior(Mead 1949).If women were able to be seen in positions of power in a religious sense in Thailand, it would change their perception of value and empower them to take on new roles for cultural and religious traditions . The whole power dynamic and system of bunkum(system of ineptness) and sakdi na (social hierarchy).  According to Dhammananda Bhikkhuni: “I’m just a small crack in the wall; the wall of patriarchy; on the wall of the hierarchy; on the wall of injustice. Soon there will be more cracks and someday the wall will fall.”( Dhammananda Bhikkhuni,2017).The ‘Wai’ in Thailand is a significant act of social behavior in Thailand. It is a physical gesture which is  symbolic of  a person’s social standing. The wai consists of hands clasped together, prayer-like, followed with a very slight bow. There are a variety of different ways to wai, for example someone would never wai a person younger than them first or in a lower position. In a school a new and younger teacher would wai the older teacher and the students would wai the new teacher and so on. The higher someone stands socially the higher hands are to be raised with monks and royalty receiving the highest of wais, with people raising them hands to their forehead. Thai people are very sensitive to their social standing in Thailands immensely hierarchical structure. The idea of a male having to Wai a religious female monastic in Thailand is an alien concept. Even in other intuitions such as hospitals and schools men advance much further and quicker than women. If someone in a senior position wished something done, they would ask the female, even if they started the job at the same time and were both interns with the same qualifications. This may even include cleaning or simply going to get coffee, the junior female in the place of work would always be asked, and if not then it would be the more feminine man and so on. By seeing more women in as leading figures in Buddhism it would begin to effect all other parts of Thai society. Human behavior is unbelievably malleable responding and contrastingly to contrasting cultural traditions(Mead 1949).Throughout the country there are numerous temple schools where families who cannot afford schooling can send their sons to get a good education. There are few choices for girls with little education, factory workers, manual workers or even sex workers. Families believe that sending their sons to be a  monk at a temple even for a short time garners them much merit for the next life, again something which is currently not possible for girls in Thailand currently.

 

 

 

 

To avoid trouble with the greater clergy many Bhikkhuni dub their temples ‘womens meditation centres’.Bhikkhuni in Thailand have faced widespread discrimination throughout Thailand both by Bhikku(male monks) and laypeople despite many trying to lead a quiet existence. On April 20, 2016, a Bhikkhuni ‘womens meditation centre’ was burned down, the centre was run by two Bhikkhuni who may also have had land problems with their neighbours, they, however, faced many challenges before this incident with being frowned upon by the clergy. Not only do Bhikkhuni have to work extremely hard to support themselves and their centres, due to not receiving any of the benefits that other monastics get; they must also concentrate on having relations with locals. The image of Thai monks has been tainted severely over the last few years with accounts of rape, drug trafficking, smuggling amongst an array of other crimes. Similar to in the way the image of Catholic priests has been tarnished the monks in Thailand have also been, perhaps, irreparably. The social elite in Thailand also are against female ordination in Thailand as every year Thailands biggest stars, and wealthiest individuals donate millions to temples, which they frequently receive tax refunds for.Many of the wealthiest people in Thailand have made deals with famous Thai monks as it is a legitimate way to take care of some of their money and keep it ‘clean’. Not only does the Thai Sangha forbid the ordination of females on Thai soil but they have also denied visas to Bhikkhuni coming to Thailand from abroad. In 2003 the Department of National Buddhist Affairs for Thailand denied visas for multiple Bhikkhuni; both from Sri Lanka and India. Dhammananda Bhikkhuni made the following statement after the visas were denied: “Is this the way that the Department of National Buddhist Affairs is trying to preserve Buddhism? This is clearly a systematic elimination of the Bhikhunni Sangha.This is disrespectful to the allowance of the Buddha himself. ” Another example was in early 2017 when a large group of 70 Bhikhunni arrived at the grand palace intending to pay respects to the late monarch but were denied. Dhammananda Bhikkhuni had already made preparations and called to the palace for confirmation however when they arrived at the palace were denied the monastic entrance. They were told that if they wished to pay their respects, they would have to disrobe and join the other laypeople.  Earlier in the year, other groups of Bhikkhuni were also denied entrance.

 

 

It is clear that the Bhikkhuni in Thailand face an uphill battle. They fight not only ideals of gender conformity but also are faced with opposition on all sides: The Sangha, laypeople, male patriarchy and the social elites. Bhikkuni offers a new vision for Theravada Buddhism in Thailand, one free from the corruption and scandal that is currently residing in the monkhood here. It is clear that individuals such as Dhammananda Bhikkhuni strive not only for gender equality in religion but in all aspects of Thai life. Gender equality in Buddhism is, of course, the first step in empowering women in Thailand to a new future. One in which women are as valued as men and feminine qualities are also seen as powerful.When Dhammananda Bhikkhuni was asked in 2017:

What do you see as the future of the Bhikkhunis in Thailand?

She replied:
“Remember three things in life, think of yourself as in a cocoon as we are 1.To always be humble that is the most important thing,2. Be eager 3. Always seek to improve yourself. No one can stop us now, not the Sangha or others, we are growing and will continue to grow.”

An Analysis of the Sustainable Development Goals from a gender perspective. How do they compare with the former Millennium Development Goals when looked at with a gender lens?

Introduction

 

On the 25th of September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly took on the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development as the proper scheme for International Development. The Sustainable Development Goals succeeded the Millenium Development Goals. This will be a short paper evaluating and analysing how the Sustainable Development Goals compare to the previous Millenium Development Goals as well as how and if they succeed in the first place. In particular, this will be through the lens of a gender perspective.

 

 

The Millenium Development Goals

 

The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) were a group of 8 International Development Goals to be achieved by 2015. They had been established at the Millenium Summit in 2000.The goals were: to eradicate poverty and hunger, to achieve universal primary education, to promote gender equality and empower women, to reduce child mortality, to improve maternal health, to combat  HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, to ensure environmental sustainability, to establish a global partnership for development.Each of the 189 member states of the United Nations and more than 22 International Organisations committed to trying to attain each of these goals in their countries.Many individuals and organisations complained that these were not the goals that should be focused on and that there was in fact not enough analysis given to the chosen goals. In particular Goal 3, the Goal to Promote gender equality and empower women, one of it’s primary goals was to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by  2005 and at all levels by 2015.This was to be done by implementing fixes in a few key areas. To begin with the ratio of boys and girls in primary, secondary and tertiary education, at that time there was vast inequality and many more boys than girls studying in higher and secondary education. Next, the goals hoped to tackle the share of wages in employment in the non-agricultural sector and finally to have an equal appropriation of seats in national parliaments for women.Many argue that the Millenium Development Goals were unsuccessful in some ways, especially from a gender perspective. According to the UN MDGS Gender Chart showed how the MDGS were progressive in many ways, yet still have many issues to deal with, hopefully through the Sustainable Development Goals of 2030.For example, the MDGS were very successful regarding poverty reduction by reducing the people living in extreme poverty by over 50%.One of the MDGS goals was to achieve universal productive rights and reduce maternal mortality rates by three-quarters of the levels in 1990. The MDG achieved reducing these rates by half since 2000, yet still, one maternal death was reported every ten minutes in India, double the ambitions of the MDGs.The goals of the MDGs were based on data in the 1960s and the following of trends of where progress would happen. This clearly points out not only a failure of the UN but also a complete slowing down of movement altogether. The United Nations Development Fund said: “Inadequate funding for family planning is a major failure in fulfilling commitments to improving women’s reproductive health.” [Un representative, Un report,2012] Development ideals for the MDGs from a gender perspective could not be achieved unless the Patriarchal hierarchy can be adapted towards progression. One way that maternal death rates in Ogun were being prevented in Nigeria was by giving maternal women in remote areas cellphones. However, whenever the phones were called, it was their father or husband who answered.The phones were already being confiscated from the women and giving the phone to women from then on was pointless. Scenarios like this and other are hoped to be prevented with the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

 

The Sustainable Development Goals

As mentioned before on the 25th of September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly took on the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are planned to supersede the MDGs in some ways. The SDGs have been designed to be more comprehensive in scope, transformative for the planet and will be able to be universally applied. The MDGs were focused only on developing nations as opposed to before where the focus was almost solely on developing countries. Goal number 5 of the SDGs is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. This Goal is similar to Goal 3 of the MDGs. However, they do differ in some ways. The SDGs were formed mostly by people in the areas where the goals are to be implemented as opposed to the MDG’s which were drawn up in the UN headquarters. This a move which shows the UN trust to experts in the field rather than only office staff who may not have as many hands on experience where development is to be made. The example that was shown before of the mobile phones being taken from women in Ogun can be better implemented. The MDGs were not prepared for such situations, but  by relying on more in-depth consultation, the SDGs can help promote gender equality where development failed before. The SDGs plan to empower women more so than the MDG’s ever did by working much more closely than civil society organisations. Empowerment can be defined as a “multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives. It is a process that fosters power (that is, the capacity to implement) in people, for use in their own lives, their communities, and in their society, by acting on issues that they define as important” [Directorate –general for internal policies, policy department C, citizens rights and constitutional affairs]. In fact, according to UN World Survey on the Role of Women in Development 2014,” there are proven synergies between women’s empowerment and economic, social and environmental sustainability.” [Directorate –general for internal policies, policy department C, citizens rights and constitutional affairs].

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

There were many complications with the Millennium Development Goals. People argued that they were poorly implemented and did not gain the results they were intended to. They  did, however, help promote gender inequality in some ways “As of October 2013, women were 21.8 percent of parliamentarians in single or lower houses and 19.4 per cent of Senate or upper houses, up from 12 per cent and 10.1 per cent in January 1997, respectively.”[UN women.com, progress towards meeting the MDGs for women.] and “Gender parity in schooling worldwide is closest to being achieved at the primary level; however, only 2 out of 130 countries have achieved that target at all levels of education.”[MDG3, unwomen.org]. In the numerous areas that the MDGs failed to promote true gender equality, the SDGs are hoped to succeed. Development will be worked towards on a case by case basis rather than devised from UN headquarters. It is entirely possible that the SDGs will encourage equality more than before, they give individuals agency that they never had with the MDGs, it will be 2030 however before the results are shown.

 

Migrant Worker in Thailand-แรงงานข้ามชาติ

In Thailand, there are almost two million migrant workers, around eighty percent of them being Burmese. Many of the Burmese workers came in the eighties and nineties as Thailand experienced an economic boom having an average wage increase of eight percent per year. This was because the migrant Burmese workers would take up the jobs that many Thai people would not such as manufacturing and hard agricultural work. Many leave in the face of almost certain poverty for the chance of a better life.

I am Burmese and a migrant worker that is why the police don’t care about this case…. [M]y husband and I are only migrant workers and we have no rights here.

—Aye Aye Ma, from Burma, who was raped by two unknown Thai assailants after they shot and killed her husband on November 5, 2007, in Phang Nga province

This is not always the case as can be seen from this testimony by Aye Aye Ma. Many Burmese workers are bound totally to their employer. Many of the workers face extortion, physical harm and threats by government authorities. These are clear human rights abuses and are not limited to simply one area of Thailand but rather along the entirety of the country. Migrant workers face extortion at will by Thai authorities, often the value of several months wages at a time.When they cannot pay the workers are often beaten and arrested until a family member or friends can pay for their release.

Below is some quotes from the Human Rights Watch report: The tiger and the Crocodile

Whenever we are walking and talking on the street, if the police see us using the phone they will stop us and take it. If you want to talk to me about these kinds of cases, you will not be able to finish the interview today….It happens every day.

—U Win, a migrant worker from Burma in Surat Thani, August 27, 2008.

There are many dangers for workers who work at night. For example, when the workers meet Thai teenager gangs, they are robbed and beaten….The danger we face is invisible. If we were able to have mobile phones and motorcycles, we might manage to escape from the danger.[67]

—U Win, migrant worker from Burma, Muang district, Surat Thani province

If you pay money [to the police], you can do anything in our region. If you want, you can kill people … I have seen dead bodies many times by the side of the road … Our area is like a fighting zone … when the police hear the sounds of gunshots, they will not come … [later] the police will come ask what happened, and write down the information and then they go away, and that is all that happens.

—Saw Htoo, Burmese migrant worker who provided information to the Thai police, Mae Sot district, Tak province

“He was coming out of the shop. There were two police officers on a motorcycle who stopped him and asked him if he had a work permit. But he could not speak Thai and so he did not reply….Those two police started to beat him and they kicked him in the chest until he died there. Many Burmese were watching and nobody went and helped because all of the people were afraid of those police, so nobody said anything about this killing, and nobody informed the police station. When the two police saw that the boy died, they went away on their motorcycle. I saw the next morning that the rescue foundation came and took the boy’s dead body and no police officer was with them … I really wanted to help but I am afraid of those police.”

This is just a sampling of the human rights abuses and racial discrimination that Burmese workers face everyday here in Thailand.