The continued relevance of Paulo Freire i the 21st century


Paulo Freire was on the forefront of the critical pedagogy movement; he argued that education can never merely be a neutral process. Education can either be used to adopt generations into the current logic system or instead, education can be used a tool to allow people to think critically about reality. This allows people to conform or transform their world respectively. Many academics have debated over the last several years whether the theories of Paulo Freire are still as relevant now regarding education in the 21st century as they were in the 20th. Some academics argue that his opinions are no longer relevant in a ‘western’ setting, yet some debate that his theories are more relevant than ever as education could be deemed an inflated ‘banking’ system more than ever.


Paulo Reglus Neves Freire was a Brazilian educator and deemed by some to be the most important educator of the second half of the twentieth century (Carnoy 2004). Freire was the leading voice in the critical pedagogy theory and thus wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed, believed to be the founding text of the critical pedagogy movement. Freire was born to a relatively wealthy middle-class family in Brazil who then suffered during the great depression resulting in Freire experiencing the life of the poor.  Freire did not do well in school, nor did many of the more impoverished children who came to be his close companions; this was due to their hunger and social situation as Freire stated ” “I didn’t understand anything because of my hunger. I wasn’t dumb. It wasn’t lack of interest. My social condition didn’t allow me to have an education”(Stevens, no date). Many believe these early scenarios are what led Freire on his lifelong conquest to aid the poorest in society. After his family had their fortune back, Freire enrolled into law school and also studied phenology and language psychology.

For the next few years Freire worked as a lecturer and attained many high ranking positions at various universities; he was imprisoned as a traitor during the 1964 military coup as he was believed to be a traitor. After being released, he worked in Chile and published Education as the Practice of Freedom which was his first book. He was then offered a visiting professorship at Harvard. The next year Pedagogy of the Oppressed was released, although it took some years to be translated due to political feuds. After working in The USA and Switzerland, he eventually moved with his wife to Sao Paulo where he died in 1997 due to heart failure.

Paulo Freire contributed in many ways to a number of schools, namely in education, psychology, philosophy, law and liberation. Much of his work focused in five key areas; these were: dialogue, praxis, conscientization, lived experience education, and his theory of class suicide. Freire recognized the need to reform education from the traditional monologue of traditional education; this is where he came up with the contrasting dialogue of schooling.(Vella,2004). Traditional monologue education focuses on presenting learners with information, they do not have to engage with the information but are instead ‘fed’ what the instructor wants them to know.(Global learning partners,2006). The method of monologue education was directly opposed by dialogue education which is a form of constructivism which can lead to transformative learning.(Vella,2004) Praxis was an area in which Freire was also focused, an area in which few other educators have delved. Praxis can be linked back to Aristotle and later, several young Hegelian authors in defining Marxism. Praxis is often thought of as when skills, theories and ideas are put into practice, linked with certain values in mind. He defined praxis as: “reflection and action directed at the structures to be transformed.” (Freire,1970) He wrote in detail about Praxis in Pedagogy of The Oppressed and explained how dialogue and praxis are entwined to make transformative change.

The concept of conscientisation was first developed by Freire and has its roots in post-Marxist theory. Conscientisation can be  achieved by having a critical consciousness and engaging a form of metacognition.  Many modern academics have built upon Freire’s’ theory of concinzisation such as Joe Kincheloe. Joe Kincheloe expanded upon the term and linked it with his work in post formalism. In this context, Kincheloe constructs a critical theory of cognition that explores questions of meaning, and a focus on the socio-political construction of the self.(Thomas and Kincheloe,2006).

Lived experience education for Freire meant opening up opportunities for educators both formal and informal to open up to new practices. In particular, this is done through the use of language as Freire believed that creating new names and ways of acting to be particularly powerful. Class suicide is another concept in which Freire focused. Class suicide means for both teachers and learners to rise above until they are thinking in a conscious way. As Paul Taylor noted “the educator for liberation has to die as the unilateral educator of the educatees, in order to be born again as the educator-educatee of the educatees-educators. An educator is a person who has to live in the profound significance of Easter. (Paul Taylor,1993).


Education in the 21st century is not the same as education in the 20th, as technology has changed . It could be deemed as a time where education has been taken over by the ‘mega rich’, where the political relevance of education has been lost to the language of measurement and quantification.(Giroux,2010).

As the ‘mega rich’ have been sieging educational institutions with both neoliberal and conservative forces Friere’s words ring truer than ever: “The fatalist is discouraging ideology which drives the liberal discourse is stalking the world. In the name of postmodernism, it seeks to persuade us that we can do nothing to change the social situation which, once seen as historical and cultural, is now becoming ‘almost the natural state.” (Friere,1970). What is clear is that the majority of Freire’s ideals are stuck in the past, they are viewed with a sense of nostalgia, even by academics who grew up in his era of struggle. They now think differently and have accepted the current totalitarian hegemony as ‘normal’.

For younger academics, he is simply a bibliographical reference in an exercise, devoid of characterization or anything deeper. (Hurtado, 2007). Freire’s works and ideals without a doubt helped shape the 20th century. Many intellectuals in the past and even now claimed to have ‘read’ Friere; they can quote, mark and regurgitate countless examples for any given situation. Freire requires commitment; he must be read, reread, and read again, this then allows people to form their own Freire in the way they see him.

The commitment that it takes to ‘read’ Friere is something which is all too sadly commonly lacking in our neoliberal age. The reason that students who have studied Freire are so dangerous to ‘the powers that be’ is that it grants them the ability to negotiate the relationship between theory and practice. Not only why they are learning what they are but also why. Why are they learning in this specific way and in what way is it benefitting themselves and others? Students who are educated liberally and radically can critically analyze both themselves and their society. One method of implanting liberal education could be done through what Freire named culture circles. This is a teaching methodology in which the focus is based on group discussions and participation as opposed to a syllabus which can be both alienating and daunting to any student.

Some academics now argue that many of Freire’s contributions were relevant in the past, they worked but are no longer useable in a modern society. In many ways, we need to be using strict and structured language in the 21st century. Ideas that can be grounded in their contexts. This can tie in well with Freire and his perceptions of the oppressed. In Pedagogy of the Oppressed, he deems that a side must be chosen, either with them or against them. This is perhaps outdated particular in development when actors should be looked at in a holistic fashion.

Regarding holistic thought, much of Freire’s work has been criticized by academics by being sexist, particularly by feminist scholars. This was because when he would write the word he, writing it as an inclusive term for all of humanity. Much of his writing was based on the oppressed, but much of his work portrayed the downtrodden as only males, mostly in the form of male peasant farmers. (Weiler, 1996)As concepts of gender and expressive sexuality have changed entering the 21st century, Freire could be deemed outdated.

Education and in many ways, development was shaped in a number of ways by Freire. Although education and development have changed a lot, many things have not and do remain the same. In this sense, Freire is still very relevant and perhaps more important than ever. The ideal of a democratic society has not changed in the last couple of thousand years and very little since Freire’s first writings. A democratic society is one in which people are allowed the rights to freedom of speech and expression and have a hand in crafting their nation.

As Abrahan Lincoln said during the Gettysburg Address “”Democracy is for the people, By the people, Of the people.”(Abraham Lincoln,1863). Freire believed that is a true democracy that equal opportunity does not exist.  He wrote “No one can learn tolerance in a climate of irresponsibility, which does not produce democracy. The act of tolerating requires a climate in which limits may be established, in which there are principles to be respected. That is why tolerance is not coexistence with the intolerable. Under an authoritarian regime, in which authority is abused, or a permissive one, in which freedom is not limited, one can hardly learn tolerance. Tolerance requires respect,, discipline, and ethics.(Freire, 2001).Ethics was central to Freire when it came to development and education. Education is not merely a tool to learn knowledge, knowledge itself is a social construct after all; but ratherto  learn ethical values which are particularly important in the development field.(Hurtardo, 2007) Ethical knowledge is more important than ever in the 21st century. We have become in many ways been educated a neoliberal and hegemonic sense of ethics, which is further than ever from humanist values. As we have firmly settled in the ‘culture of normality’, it is harder to create changes in development, As so much of development now is reigned by distant and alienating terminology, facts and figures. Through education, progress can be adapted to fit the 21st.

As many academics have pointed out, much of Freire’s methods and particularly his terminology may be outdated. Many have had problems with his views on the oppressed and his definition of democracy. Radical education and humanist values are essential to changing how development is seen in the 21st century. Only through educational frameworks set out by Friere and others like him can this be achieved. Even development has seen the impact of the neoliberal ‘powers that be’. The first steps towards change are to acknowledge the dominant factors and examine them critically. They must be considered, and how they impact lives in social, political, and even personal contexts, this will then lead to changes in education and therefore development. In this sense, Freire cannot be said to be outdated but more relevant than ever.













The Five Capitals

I agree that there is not one precise accumulation of assets that equates development, definitely nos ‘success’ . It is important to see capitals as vehicles for instrumental actions(making a living) which then leads to hemenetry  action(making a living meaningful) which in turn then leads to emancipatory action(challenging the power of structures)(Bebbington 2013). This is why is is important to view assets as not only single assets with single uses but rather look at the interconnectedness, a single asset but multiple uses. Look at the example of an ox, a farmer may buy it to work the fields whch brings them physical capital. They then use the ox tow build economic capital, enhance their nature capital, working together with their human capital. The farmer can also use the ox to enhance their social capital(renting to a friend or building association etc.

The 5 capitals pentagon has five parts namely:

-Natural capital

Natural resources stocks(Soil,water,air etc) and environmental services(Hydrological cycle etc)

-Social Capital

Social resources(Networks,associations etc)

(Can have negative impacts, joining certain groups etc,KKK,Antifa,…)

-Human Capital

Skills and Knowledge,Labour and Health


-Physical Capital

Infrastructure(Tools,transport,shelter etc)

-Economic or Financial Capital

Capital Base(Cash,credit etc)

Having the ‘x factor’ is important to creating a successful household. The concept of the ‘x factor is the same (being the right combination of the 5 capitals, being able to suffer shocks etc,as well as being sustainable). It holds true however that the ‘x factor is entirely contextual and differs greatly on the location and background of any given household.The ‘x factor should rather be viewed and analysed by its perceptive surroundings.

As the sustainable livelihoods approach was originally developed for rural settings it is now moving towards urban contexts. Capitals change over time (water is more valuable in a drought etc). This is why households must focus on the opportunity cost of any move, for example, if more money is spent on electricity, then there is less money to spend on other things(food etc).

‘The striking differences between the long-term histories of peoples of the different continents have been due not to innate differences in the peoples themselves but to differences in their environments. (Diamond 1997

Human Development Index/Wellbeing Thailand

The Human Development Index (HDI)  originated in reports by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Originally developed and implemented by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990 “to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centred policies”(Haq,1990). The HDI focuses on measuring education, life expectancy and per capita income. So countries where people live long and happy lives, are well educated and have a comfortable standard of living tend to score the highest. Thailand currently has a score of 0.74 placing it at 87 out of all 188 countries measured making it a top scoring country. In 1990 Thailand had a score of 0.54, this means that Thailand has achieved an increase of almost 29 percent since 1990 and the last HDI report in 2015. The mean years of schooling increased by 3.3 years, life expectancy at birth also increased by 4.3 years, and there has been a huge increase of 121.2 percent regarding the GNI per capita. The Inequality-adjusted HDI helps to focus on and brings into account all the inequalities in all three areas; inequality is something that the standard HDI fails to reveal. When the Inequality-adjusted HDI in taken into account Thailand’s score falls to just 0.54, resulting in a 20 percent loss. This is, however, the average for high scoring HDI countries.(HDI report,2016)


The Happy Planet Index was conceived by and carried out by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in 2006.As opposed to the HDI the HPI focuses more on sustainability. The HDI report of a country may only reveal the GDP and solid figures relating to standard development but not on sustainable development or the effects on the environment. Countries that leave small ecological footprints score significantly higher than those that leave large ones. The HPI also takes into account the happiness of people and believes that the usual ultimate aim of most people is not to be rich, but to be happy and healthy(Sen,1999).Thailand measures very well on the Happy Planet Index with a score of 37.3, placing the country at 9th place of all 140 countries that were measured. The life-expectancy of people in Thailand is currently 74.5 years, with people having a wellbeing of 6.3 out of 10. Thailand scored 2.7gha/p(global hectares per person) for their ecological footprint and achieved  a score of 15 percent for inequality. Thailand has scored very well on the HPI, making it into the top 10 of all countries measured. The HPI does not take into account human rights abuses, however, although some figures may reflect this. The HPI has also been criticized as an effective tool for measurement as there is too much focus on happiness, something which is subjective and personal and the parameters for which change with each perspective culture.(Happy Planet Index,2017)


The GDP of Thailand currently represents 0.66 percent of the economy of the world which is worth 406 billion USD. The GDP growth rate was showing a downward trend over the last few years due to political turmoil but now is on the rise again due to some sense of political stability. (Trading Economics,2017)


Thailand scored significantly higher on the HPI compared to the HDI. This is due to the focus on sustainability, environmental impact and ‘happiness’. There are major merits to both of these measurements as well as numerous ways that they fall short and fail to see the whole picture. The HPI does not take into account human rights abuses which are a major issue, particularly in Thailand. Human rights abuses do effect the figures to a degree such as the scores for wellbeing and equality. They do not, however, have much to do with life expectancy or Thailand’s ecological footprint. Sen Amartyas statement about the primary focus of people is their wish to be happy over wealth is very accurate. (Sen,1999)  If people were offered to be happy or wealthy, they would more often than not choose to be happy. Most people believe that wealth is the vehicle that leads to happiness. Happiness is hard to quantify, as it is not a concrete figure and means something different for everyone. In either case, Thailand is on a positive trend, and as long as there is no more political unrest, the country can look forward to both financial security and happiness.


Paulo Freire, Oppression and Conscientization

Paulo Reglus Neves Freire was a Brazilian educator and deemed by some to be the most important educator of the second half of the twentieth century(Carnoy 2004). Freire was the leading voice in the critical pedagogy theory and thus wrote Pedagogy of the Oppressed, believed to be the founding text of the critical pedagogy movement. Freire was born to a relatively wealthy middle-class family in Brazil who then suffered during the great depression resulting in Freire experiencing the life of the poor.  Freire did not do well in school, nor did many of the poorer children who came to be his close companions; this was due to their hunger and social situation as Freire stated ” “I didn’t understand anything because of my hunger. I wasn’t dumb. It wasn’t lack of interest. My social condition didn’t allow me to have an education”(Stevens, no date). Many believe these early scenarios are what led Freire on his lifelong conquest to aid the poorest in society. After his family had their fortune back, Freire enrolled into law school and also studied phenology and language psychology. For the next few years Freire worked as a lecturer and attained many high ranking positions at various universities; he was imprisoned as a traitor during the 1964 military coup as he was believed to be a traitor. After being released he worked in Chile and published Education as the Practice of Freedom which was his first book. He was then offered a visiting professorship at Harvard. The next year Pedagogy of the Oppressed was released,although it took some years to be translated due to political feuds. After working in The USA and Switzerland, he eventually moved with his wife to Sao Paulo where he died in 1997 due to heart failure.

Oppression was believed to be Freires most contested social issue. Oppression is a constant and ever evolving struggle between those with power and those without it, between the oppressed and the oppressor. We all belong to one of these groups at certain points in our lives. There are numerous categories which can form our varying forms of as oppressor/oppressed such as: social class, gender, sexual orientation, age, sex and so on. Sometimes people use these categories as a mode to vent their own prejudiced ideologies, for example, someone of a particular race may steal from them, they then, in turn, may view all people from that race as thieves. This can also be seen the other way around  where dominant groups may be victimized such as if a woman suffered some form of domestic abuse they may them blame all men. Both forms of mistreatment may hurt individuals equally case by case but mistreatment by women is systematic and socially accepted so the context within the mistreatment really makes a big difference (Sean Ruth 2006).Oppression is a word which people hear and often think of an authoritarian regime bent on totalitarianism. This is not always the case as Sean Ruth defines oppression as “where people do not get equal treatment or do not get treated with respect because they belong to a certain group or category of people”(Sean Ruth 2006). Oppression is a systematic process; it is not random. Many people internalize oppression, if someone is told something for long enough, they start to believe it. If someone Is told that they are stupid or ugly for long enough, then they begin to see it as fact.

Conscientization is defined by Ledwith as “the process whereby people become aware of the political, socioeconomic and cultural contradictions that interact in a hegemonic way to diminish their lives” (Ledwith 2005). Conscientisation means developing a critical consciousness which is pivotal to perceive social, political, and economic oppression and to take action against the oppressive elements of society.(Hermes press, no date). Conscientisation can result in collective action, or can even be applied individually to encourage critical analysis, metacognition and perhaps also to let go of long-held and oppressive worldviews.



Freire believed that the key to attaining conscientisation was through liberating and radical education, one such mode could be culture circles. This is a more informal teaching methodology where the focus is on group discussion and participation as opposed to an alienating syllabus. This is a form of liberating education.



Freire saw two perspectives two education. Firstly there was the banking approach where the student is seen as an empty account merely waiting to be filled by the teacher; this results in the students simply being receiving objects and little more. This keeps things as they are and educates individuals to fit into society. Secondly, there was the liberating approach; this can be implemented through methods such as culture circles. This allows both teachers and students to be co-learners where relevant knowledge can be sought together. Students are left with critical knowledge in a way that the banking approach to education could never provide. This results in the transformation of the status quo entirely. (Hope and Timmel 1995)

Freires concepts of oppression and conscientization have always impressed me and are most relevant in our current narcissistic era. In our current societies, we aspire to be cool, illiterate, egotistical and violent individuals. Not to seem like a political nihilist but we truly are victims of our past and upbringing, and that is why we do what we do now, we have little control. We have lost the knowledge of how precious real human liberty is. This is because our education systems have and are continuing to create a whole generation of distracted people. In Frieres own words:

“Who are better prepared than the oppressed to understand the terrible significance of an oppressive society? Who suffer the effects of oppression more than the oppressed? Who can better understand the necessity of liberation? They will not gain this liberation by chance but through the praxis of their quest for it, through their recognition of the necessity to fight for it. And this fight, because of the purpose given it by the oppressed, will actually constitute an act of love opposing the lovelessness which lies at the heart of the oppressors’ violence, lovelessness even when clothed in false generosity.”(Friere 1968)





The Chars, Bandgladesh

Bangladesh is known as one of the poorest and most disaster-prone countries in the world. Around 50% of the population of 26 million people are poor, and of these 23% are deemed ‘extreme poor’ and 20 % labeled as the poor of tomorrow, where if current trends continue they will also fall into poverty(Rahman 1998). The riverine sand and silt landmasses in Bangladesh are known as the Chars in Bengali and are home to some of the poorest people in the country. The chars are relatively new and are created by constant changing, flooding and eroding rivers. The Chars can be found along the banks of most major rivers such as the Ganges-Padma and the Meghna,; they can also be found as standalone islands. The people living in the Chars face flooding and erosion which in turn has led to a number of other difficulties. The scale of erosion is vast with thousands of kilometers of riverbanks being lost every year. The Kurigram district is the point where the  Brahmaputra river enters Bangladesh from India. The Kurigram district hosts a significant number of Chars, and the people here suffer most from erosion and floods. It could be said that the people in the Kurigram district live in one of the poorest districts of one of the poorest districts of the world. (Sorensen, D.1994)


There are a number of relatively well organized informal structures based in the Chars.  These include formal government institutions, informal social organizations as well as a number of NGO’s.  There are very few formal government offices in Kurigram with no office government department dedicated to the Chars. What small number of government offices are there, are slow to process anything as they must follow central protocol and overcome beurocratic hurdles. They are  inadequately equipped and underfunded,further increasing peoples mistrust in them.  The government offices also suffer from severe understaffing as there are few amenities and little infrastructure resulting in many government officials opting to work elsewhere. (Nandi 2000). This does not apply to the Union Parishad however.  The Union Parishad is a very low form of formal government, yet they are trusted by the people as the Union Parishad often works through local informal structures such as the Samaj and the Shalish. The Union Parishad is comprised of individuals voted in from the ward-level , and at least 3 of them must be women.


The Samaj is found in all villages in the Chars; they are a very powerful informal body especially in the Kurigram region. The leadership of the Samaj is typically made up of older, experienced and well-respected men in the community, unlike the Union Parishad there are no women in leadership positions. The shalish is an informal court convened by the samaj. The samaj and shalish hold no legal authority but people do however follow the ruling of both as not to do so would risk community protection and acceptance. Less serious crimes and transgressions usually are treated by minor fines and sanctions, quite often with less severe cases, the police will refer many cases to the judgment of the Shallish. Many minor disputes such as land rights are frequent in the chars; the Shalish is usually called to mediate the situation with an estimated 90% of all disputes being resolved in this way.It is incredibly beneficial for people to be members of the Samaj as they offer community services and support in a number of ways. The samaj offer protections and services for the women when men are away working, as well as flood and erosion protection, loans at sub-commercial rates among and so on.


In the Chars, the cultural institutions continue to value men and women at different levels.  Much of the local norms are due to traditional religious practices and customs which has affected women’s standing in the community in a number of ways; although perhaps less so than in other Islamic societies. Women tend not to own assets and have limited freedom of movement and access to markets as they must first have the permission of their husbands. This can leave some households particularly vulnerable to shocks when the husband is away to work(Hossain, A. 2000). In much of Bangladesh, the difference between boys and girls school attendance levels has somewhat disappeared, this is not true in the Chars, however. This ties in jointly with the fact that women are often married around 8 or 9 years old and stop school once they are married. Widows in the Chars are some of the most vulnerable in the Chars due to the restraints put on them by society, this results on them either going back to their family home and being perceived as a burden by the rest of community or perhaps finding work with a much wealthier family. (Hossain, A. 2000)


The various institutions and platforms in the Chars impact people in a number of ways in terms of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. Many of these being informal institutions based in the Kurigram district. The institutions work in a number of ways:


Agriculture and land: Share-cropping, night sowing, panchi(Partial re-emerged land is cultivated and harvested equally), land leasing/exchange/ownership recognition


Livestock: Share-rearing, gifting to brides


Social: Hat chanada(Collection made by samaj for the poorest unable to pay for dowry), interest-free loan,


Religious/Cultural: Dowry, inheritance, polygamy, talak divorce


Financial: Shop advance, advance labor selling, credit


Others: Labour groups, Labour contracts


These local institutions along with larger institutions, aim to help people in the Chars in terms of vulnerability, asset ownership, and livelihood strategies.


There are numerous structures working within the Chars, both formal and informal. The informal institutions hold the most sway in the Chars as people hold little faith in the government-sanctioned institutions and policies. This is mostly due to the limited control with lack of resources, staff and so forth and the fact that laws applied in major cities in Bangladesh, cannot be applied to the Chars in the same way In this sense, law is perhaps not always sanctioned but is followed because people depend on the community protections and amenities offered (not including the extremely wealthy).There are a number of cultural restrictions in place due to perceived gender roles specific to Chars society. Many of these gender norms are specific just to the Chars and differ greatly from the rest of Bangladesh, these restrictions particularly placed on women, often send the most vulnerable in society even further into poverty. (Baqee, A.,1998) Due to sustainable framework analysis, we can see that the inability for people to escape from poverty is due to the interlinking issues and poverty traps caused by their environment. It is difficult always to be sure where interventions should be implemented due to the cast and ever-changing terrain of the Chars. Actors must correlate strategies, as now the fine work being done by them is singular and there are gaps both in quality and quantity.






Humanistic and Radical Approaches to Andragogy



For my first choice, I shall refer to humanistic education and why I feel that it is most relevant to me just now in my present circumstances. Learning through a humanistic approach to education relies on being self-directed. As with many of us doing this course and was mentioned before I work a full-time job to pay for the course. By being given the opportunity to be self-directed allows someone working to study at a pace that is suitable to them at the times when they are available. Through this approach of self-directed learning, it will enable the learner to be tested on the most valuable form of evaluation: self-evaluation. This is notably important when in comes to andragogy regarding development studies. Many adult learners wish to deepen their understanding of development as they already have extensive experience through their careers and lifestyles, a humanistic approach allows the learner to incorporate their own experiences into their learning As Saul McLeod wrote in 2007:” “Humanistic, humanism, and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each.”(Saul McLeod 2007).A Humanistic approach does not separate from the cognitive and affective domains, understanding that both feeling and knowledge are important as opposed to objectively memorized facts.(Cortland 2012).A humanistic approach to education allows adult learners to learn in a non-threatening and safe environment where we can use our own skills and experiences to help us grow and develop in a whole way.



Radical education is an approach which views education as a means to bring about fundamental social, cultural, political, and economic change.(Daniel Schugurensky,2002).Radical education focuses on promoting social, political and economic reform through education.(Shana Appelhanz, 2014).This is especially important to us in development studies because we already have interests in this area and can hone our already growing knowledge base. Radical education serves to provide equality to all who study as It relates to” access to wealth, education, healthcare, creative work, and to promoting collective and corporative forms of decision making and labor.”(Bookfield and Holst,2011).Origins of  Radical education can be traced back to Marxist theory and anarchist traditions. Allowing the teachers to rather be supporters of students and being on equal terms allows beneficial symbiotic relations to foster. Brazilian educator and philosopher Paulo Freire was an essential contributor to the philosophy, fundamentally he believed that collective action and continuing the struggle for the oppressed was important to liberate themselves from all forms of domination(Reflect Action,2009).This then, in turn, allows learners and educators to challenge the status quo.


I believe that both humanistic and radical approaches to education have their merits when it comes to andragogy. The humanist approach allows adult learners to study in a way in which they can learn in a self-directed approach in which they can incorporate all of their own experiences and knowledge. Radical education allows learners to study as co-creators of knowledge. As Freire noted traditional education methods instead treat individuals as empty vessels to be filled with knowledge. This can be seen in his “banking model of education.” There are critiques of course of both of these approaches such as how humanistic education may lead to individualization If all the students in class regularly do the same thing at the same time, their individual needs are not being met and this would be bad(Kenneth R. Conklin,1984). Critics of the radical approach to education argue that the philosophy is too rigid and with the too widely varying definitions is too hard to put into practice.  Regarding how these methods relate to myself and learning on this course, I believe these to be two most reliable due to my present circumstances. Development studies are often undertaken by individuals with a wealth of knowledge in the field already. The knowledge that they can draw upon to apply to a variety of situations. This is especially true when it comes to adult learners who may be working long hours in the area of development.


Resilience is a word that has become prominent in the development studies community over the last few years. Resilience started to appear after the 2008 financial crisis as people were looking for new techniques and terminology for tackling poverty.(Misha Hussain 2016).Vulnerability is also a term that has become popular over the last decade. It is important to note that both these terms are often used when referring to positive elements of poverty reduction but do however mean two entirely different things. Vulnerability is not merely about poverty, but extensive research over the last 30 years has revealed that it is generally the poor who tend to suffer from disasters(DFID 2004). Resilience, however, is deployed in diverse fields including psychology, structural engineering, and corporations. Resilience is discussed in a number of areas including the social sciences, ecological fields amongst others. Resilience has been the focus for many development projects and could be said to be replacing sustainability as the eventual goal of development practice(IDS,2012) Resilience could be said to be when actors can withstand changes and adjustments and still function normally. Theoretical discussions on the varying definitions of resilience have been generated over the years. Most of these definitions are merely used as an indication of the job to be done but are however unable to capture all possible worries about peoples vulnerability. For example, many make reference only to how much loss people (or systems) suffer, but do not address the essential question of how far they fall below any threshold of acceptable coping; a little distinction is made between how much people lose and how quickly they recover. (Simon Levine, HPD Policy Brief 2014)This concept of actors using their own definition of resilience has led to the idea that the idea of resilience may merely be another way to mask some of the underlying causes of poverty and environmental destruction.




Resilience should be thought of somewhat as a conceptual tool in which other, other disciplines can come together to tackle difficulties in a holistic manner. In some ways, it can be seen that many of the issues which cause crises are inevitable. The task, therefore, being to allow people to cope when to eventually go wrong. This helps to ensure that the most vulnerable may be protected, rather than pumping resource’s into developing countries, it allows aid to be distributed to who need it most. (Simon Levine, HPD Policy Brief 2014).An example of this can be seen in a case study of the food resilience programmes run by Practical Action as part of the Zurich Alliance. Practical Action helped to set up a farming school for at-risk communities in Nepal, living on the floodplains of the Karnali river.  The villagers were always at risk from flash floods, which endangered their livestock, food, and homes. This caused many to take on expensive loans to allow them to recover. The farming schools were set up which allowed the villagers to learn new sustainable farming techniques. This allowed farmers to cultivate outside the varying seasons. Practical Action also helped to advise villagers how to protect their assets during the floods. The resilience of this community then allowed them to invest in other areas, such as healthcare and education for their children.(Adele Murphy, 2017).



The main trouble with resilience is the difficulty in defining what resilience programming actually looks like. There is also the risk that by making an entire community very resilient there still may be those who will suffer. This can be seen when a community may become very resilient to say natural disasters and climate change adaption but still very poor.  This is what can lead to manipulation when used as a tool for poverty alleviation. Much of this may be when the term is misused, as there are many different conceptualizations of resilience it is hard to define what a resilient community may look like. Resilience cannot be used until it is fully understood rather, resilience must be used as a process as part of other development practices. (IDS,2012)



Resilience is essential now in any form of development planning, especially regarding poverty reduction. Resilience cannot, however, be used instead of other methods to challenge poverty and climate change. Alternatively, it must be used as a continuing process and put into the planning of other methods. It is essential to building resilient communities but also not to forget the most vulnerable, and at-risk individuals, focus must not be on not only how far people fall but also how fast they can recover. In this sense when resilience is applied it must be holistically and with a precise definition. For instance, do we necessarily need to adopt a resilience framework to analyze the potential role of social protection programmes to strengthen the adaptive capacity of the recipients? (Godfrey Wood 2011)